Volume 9, Chapter 11, Section 3 -- Journey of Richard Steel and John Crowther, from Ajmeer in India, to Ispahan in Persia, in the Years 1615 and 1616.
Having been detained at Agimere from February, Mr. Edwards received a letter on the 17th March, 1615, from the Great Mogul, of which he delivered a copy, together with his other letters, to Richard Steel, promising to procure the king's firmaun for our safety and furtherance, and to send it after us to Agra, where he directed us to wait for its reception. We went that night two coss to Mandill. We had four servants, two horses, and a camel. The 18th we went twelve coss to Bander Sandree [Bunder-Sanory], a small aldea. The 19th, ten coss to Mosobade [Morabad]. The 20th to Pipelo [Peped], thirteen coss. The 21st to a town called Chadfoole [Gohd?], seven coss. The 22nd to Lalscotte, thirteen coss. The 23rd to Mogolserai, twelve coss. The 24th to Hindone, fourteen coss. the 25th to Bramobad, twelve coss. The 26th to Futtipoor, twelve coss. This has been a fair city, which was built by Akbar, and contains a goodly palace belonging to the king. It is walled round in a handsome manner, and has many spacious gardens and sumptuous pleasure houses; but is now falling to ruin, and ranch ground within the walls is now sown with corn, the king having carried off much of the best stone to his new city of Agra. The 27th we went twelve coss to Agra. In the English house there, we found one Richard Barber, an apothecary, who came over with Sir Robert Shirley, and had been sent here by Mr. Kerridge to take care of Nicholas Whithington.
Within two days' journey of Agra, we passed by the country and city of Biana, where the finest indigo is made, the best being then worth thirty-six rupees the maund at Agra, but much cheaper in the country. Finding the promised firmaun came not, and the hot season of the year fast approaching, we departed on the 3rd April in the prosecution of our journey, leaving directions with Richard Barber to send it after us. We came that night to a serai called Boutta, six coss. The 4th to the town of Matra, fourteen coss, where we lay in a fair serai, and there we received the firmaun. The 5th we went twelve coss to a serai called Chatta [Chautra]. The 6th to a serai built by Azam Khan, nine coss. The 7th to a serai built by Sheic Ferreede, called Puhlwall, eleven coss. The 8th to a serai built by the same person, ten coss. The 9th to Dillee [Delhi], nine coss. This being a great and ancient city, formerly the seat of the kings, where many of them are interred. At this time, many of the great men have their gardens and pleasure houses here, and are here buried, so that it is beautified with many fine buildings. The inhabitants, who are mostly Banians or Hindoos, are poor and beggarly, through the long absence of the court.
The 10th we went ten coss from Delhi to Bunira. The 11th to Cullvower, twelve coss. The 12th to Pampette [Paniput], twelve coss. This is a small handsome city, where they manufacture various sorts of girdles and sashes, and great quantities of cotton-cloth, and have abundance of handicrafts. The 13th to Carnanl, twelve coss. The 14th to Tanisera [Tahnessir], fourteen coss. The 15th to Shavade [Shahabad], ten coss. The 16th to Mogol-Sera, or Gaugur, fifteen coss. The 17th to Sinan, fourteen coss, which is an ancient city, where they manufacture great store of cottons. The 18th to Duratia, fifteen coss. The 19th to Pullower [Bullolepoor], eleven coss. We this day passed in a boat over a great river called Sietmege which is very broad, but full of shoals, and runs westward to join the Sinde, or Indus. The 20th we came to a small town called Nicodar, eleven coss. The 21st to Sultanpoor, an old town having a river which comes from the north, over which is a bridge of six arches. At this place great store of cotton goods are made. Four coss beyond this place we passed another small river. The 22nd to Chiurmul, eleven coss. We were this day boated across a river as broad as the Thames at Gravesend, called Vian, which runs westwards to join the Sinde. On its banks Allom Khan, ambassador from the Great Mogul to the king of Persia, had pitched his camp, which looked like a little city. The 23rd we went to Khan Khanum Serai, seventeen coss, and the 24th we reached Lahore, seven coss.
All the country between Agra and Lahore is exceedingly well cultivated, being the best of India, and abounds in all things. It yields great store of powdered sugar [raw sugar], the best being worth 2 1/2 to 2 3/4 rupees the great maund of forty pounds. The whole road is planted on both sides with trees, most of which bear a species of mulberry. In the night, this road is dangerously infested with thieves, but is quite secure in the day. Every five or six coss, there are serais, built by the king or some great man, which add greatly to the beauty of the road, are very convenient for the accommodation of travellers, and serve to perpetuate the memory of their founders. In these the traveller may have a chamber for his own use, a place in which to tie up his horse, and can be furnished with provender; but in many of them very little accommodation can be had, by reason of the banians, as when once any person has taken up his lodging, no other may dispossess him. At day-break the gates of these serais are opened, and then all the travellers prepare to depart; but no person is allowed to go away sooner, for fear of robbers. This made the journey very oppressive to us, as within two hours after the sun rose we were hardly able to endure the heat.
Lahore is a great and goodly city, being one of the fairest and ancientest in India. It stands on the river Indus or Sinde; and from this place came the most valuable of the Portuguese trade when they were at peace with the Moguls, as it formed the centre of all their traffic in Hindoostan. They here embarked their goods, which were carried down the river to Tatta, and were thence transported by sea to Ormus and Persia; and such native merchants as chose to go that way between India and Persia, paid them freight. They had also a great trade up this river, in pepper and other spices, with which they furnished that part of India. At this time, the merchants of India assemble at Lahore, where they invest a great part of their money in commodities, and, joining in caravans, they pass over the mountains of Candahar into Persia; by which way it is computed there now pass yearly twelve or fourteen thousand camel loads, whereas formerly there did not go in this way above three thousand, all the rest going by way of Ormus.
These merchants are put to great expences between Lahore and Ispaban, besides being exposed to great cold in winter and fervent heat in summer, and to bad and dangerous roads, usually spending six or seven months in the journey, and they estimate the charges of each camel's load at 120 or 130 rupees. In this way Persia is furnished with spiceries, which are brought all the way from Masulipatam by land. We remained in Lahore from the 24th of April to the 13th of May, refreshing both ourselves and our horses, and providing servants and necessaries for the journey. We also procured here recommendatory letters from an ambassador to the king of Persia.
We left Lahore on the 13th May, proposing to overtake a caravan which set out two months before, and went that day eleven c. to a small town named Chacksunder. The 14th to Non-serai, fifteen c. The 15th to Mutteray, eight c. The 16th to Quemal khan, nineteen c. The 17th to Herpae, sixteen c. The 18th to Alicasaca, twelve c. The 19th Trumba, twelve c.; and this day we overtook a small caravan that left Lahore eight days before us. The 20th to Sedousehall, fourteen c. The 21st to Callixechebaut, fifteen c. The 22nd to Multan, twelve c. This is a great and ancient city, having the river Indus at the distance of three coss. All caravans must remain here ten or twelve days, before leave can be procured from the governor to proceed, on purpose that the city may benefit by their stay. It yields white plain cotton cloth and diaper. We remained five days, and were then glad to get leave to depart, by means of a present.
We passed the river on the 28th, and went twenty c. to a small village named Pettoallee. The 29th we passed another great river by a boat, and came that same night to a small river called Lacca, where we found the caravan we wished to overtake. We presented the caravan basha with a mirror and knife, when he directed us to pitch our tent near his own, that we might be more immediately under his protection. This caravan had been here ten days, and remained till the 2nd of June, waiting for an escort of cavalry to convoy them to Chatcza, a small fort in the mountains, having received information that a former caravan had been injured by the mountaineers. The 2nd June we resumed our journey, and travelled twelve c., entering into the mountains, where we were much distressed for want of fresh water, what water we met with being brackish. The 3rd and 4th we travelled all night, climbing high mountains, and following water-courses with various turnings and windings, insomuch that in travelling twelve coss our direct course did not exceed six c. The 5th we again followed the bed of a water-course or river, full of large pebbles, travelling eight c. The 6th we rested.
The 7th we went four c. still along the water-course, the 8th eight c., the 9th twelve c. and the 10th three c., when we came to Chatcza [Chatzan], a small fort with mud walls, inclosed with a ditch, where the Mogul keeps a garrison of eighty or 100 horse, to scour the road from thieves, yet these are as great thieves as any, where they find an opportunity. The captain of this castle exacted two abacees for each camel in the caravan, though nothing was legally due, as he and his troops have their pay from the king. In the whole of our way, from the river Lacca to Chatzan, we found no sustenance for man or beast, except in some places a little grass, so that we had to make provision at Lacca, hiring a bullock to carry barley for our horses. The Agwans or Afgans, as the people of the mountains are called, came down to us every day at our resting place, rather to look out what they might steal, than to buy as they pretended.
Having made provision for three days at Chatzan, we went thence on the 12th June, and travelled fourteen c. The 13th ten c. The 14th ten c. This day the mountaineers brought down to us sheep, goats, meal, butter, and barley, in abundance, sufficient both for us and our cattle, all of which they sold at reasonable prices; and from this time forwards, they did the same every day, sometimes also bringing felts and striped carpets for sale. The 15th we went six c. the 16th four c., the 17th ten c., the 18th nine c., the 19th nine c., when we came to a small town of the Afgans called Duckee [Dooky], where the Mogul keeps a garrison in a small square mud fort, the walls of which are of a good height. This fort is a mile from the town. We stopt here three days, as the caravan could not agree with the captain of the fort, who demanded a duty on every camel, and at last an abacee and a half was paid for each camel. The 23rd we went six c. the 24th we passed a place called Secotah, or the three castles, because of three villages standing near each other on the side of a hill, forming a triangle. We this day went eight c. The 25th we rested, on account of bad weather. The 26th we went ten c.
The 27th, fourteen c. This day we passed through the durues, or gates
of the mountains, being narrow straits, with very high rocks on both sides,
whence with stones a few men might stop the passage of a multitude, and
where many caravans have been accordingly cut off. We this night, where
we lodged, suffered much insolence from the Afgans; and next day, as we
passed a small village called Coasta, they exacted from us two 1/2 abacees
for each camel. The 28th we went five c.; the 29th, passing a village called
Abdun, eight c.; the 30th six c. The 1st. July in seven c. we came to a
place called Pesinga [Pusheng or Kooshinge], where there is a small fort
like that at Dooky, in which is a garrison for securing the way. At this
place the captain exacted half an abacee for each camel. The 3rd we left
the caravan and went forwards six c. The 4th we passed over a mighty mountain,
and descended into the plains beyond, having travelled that day fourteen
c. The 5th we went twenty c., and were much distressed to get grain for
our cattle. The 6th, in like distress both for them and ourselves, we went
twelve c.; and on the 7th, after eight c., we got to the city of Candahar.
These mountains of Candahar are inhabited by a fierce people, called Agwans or Potans [Afgans or Patans], who are very strong of body, somewhat fairer than the natives of Hindoostan, and are much addicted to robbery, insomuch that they often cut off whole caravans. At present they have become more civil, partly from fear of the Mogul, and partly from experiencing the advantages of trade, by selling their grain, sheep, and goats, of which they have great store, and by purchasing coarse cotton goods and other necessaries. Still, however, if they find any one straggling or lagging behind, they are very apt to make them slaves, selling them into the mountains, and houghing them to prevent their running away, after which they are set to grind grain in handmills, or to other servile employments.
The chief city, called likewise Candahar, is very ancient, and was in old times inhabited by Banians. At this place the governor of the whole country resides, who has a garrison of twelve or fifteen thousand horse, maintained there by the Great Mogul, in regard of the neighbourhood of the Persians towards the north. To the west, the city is environed by steep and craggy rocks, and to the south and east by a strong wall. In consequence of the frequent passage of caravans, it has been considerably increased of late, so that the suburbs are larger than the city. Within the last two years, in consequence of the Persian trade by way of Ormus being stopped, through war with the Portuguese, all the caravans between Persia and India must necessarily pass through this place; and here they hire camels to go into India, and at their return for Persia have to do the same. They cannot return without leave of the governor, who causes them to stop a month here, or at the least fifteen or twenty days; owing to which, it is inhabited by many lewd people, as all such places of resort commonly are.
Victuals for man and beast are to be had in great abundance at Candahar, yet are very dear owing to the great concourse of trade, occasioned by the meeting at this place of many merchants of India, Persia, and Turkey, who often conclude their exchanges of commodities here. At this place the caravans going for India usually unite together, for greater strength and security in passing through the mountains of Candahar; and those that come here from India generally break into smaller companies, because in many parts of the route through Persia, a greater number would not find provisions, as all Persia, from hence to Ispahan, is extremely barren, so that sometimes not a green thing is to be seen in two or three days travel; and even water is scarce, and that which is to be got is often brackish, or stinking and abominable. We remained at this city for fourteen days, partly to procure company for our farther journey, and partly for refreshment after the fatigues and heats of our late journey, especially on account of John Crowther, who was so weak that he at one time doubted being able to proceed any farther.
We joined ourselves to three Armenians and a dozen Persian merchants, along with whom we left the city of Candahar on the 23rd July, and went ten c. to a village called Seriabe. The 24th we came in twelve c. to Deabage, a small dea or village. The 25th in eight c. to Cashecunna, a small castle in which the Mogul has a garrison, being the utmost boundary of his dominions westwards, and confining with Persia. The 26th we travelled seventeen c. and lodged in the open fields by the side of a river. The 27th, after four c. we came to a castle called Greece, the first belonging to the king of Persia. Here we delivered to the governor the letter we had got from the Persian ambassador at Lahore, and presented him a mirror and three knives. He would take nothing for our camels, while the others had to pay five abacees for each camel. He promised to give us a safe conduct under an escort of horse to the next governor, but we saw none; neither were we sorry for the omission, for he was little better than a rebel, and all his people were thieves.
The 28th we departed at night, going two parasangs, and lodged at a dea or village called Malgee. A farcing or parasang is equal to two Indian cosses and a half. The 29th we went ten p. and lodged in the open fields, where we could get nothing but water. The 30th we went five p. to a small castle named Gazikhan. The 31st other five p. to an old ruined fort, where we could get nothing but water, and that was stinking. The 1st August we proceeded [[an]]other five p. to an old fort called Dilaram, where we paid an abacee and a half for each camel. We staid here one day to rest our cattle, which was termed making mochoane; and on the 3rd we went seven p. to an old castle called Bacon. The 4th, four p., and lodged in the open fields, where we found nothing but water. The 5th, four p.; and the 6th, five p. to Farra.
Farra is a small town, surrounded by a high wall of bricks dried in the sun, as are all the castles and most of the buildings in this country, and is of a square form, about a mile in circuit. It has a handsome bazar or market-place, vaulted overhead to keep out the rain, and in which all kinds of necessaries and commodities are sold. It is situated in a fertile soil, having plenty of water, without which nothing can be raised in this country; and it is wonderful to see with what labour and ingenious industry they bring water to every spot of good ground, which is but seldom to be found here, often carrying it three or four miles in trenches under ground. At this town, all merchants going into Persia must remain for seven, eight, or ten days; and here the king's treasurer sees all their packs weighed, estimating the value of their commodities at so much the maund, as he thinks fit, and exacts a duty of three per cent. ad valorem on that estimate. On their way into Persia, merchants are used with much favour, lest they should make complaints to the king, who will have merchants kindly treated; but on their return into India, they are treated with extreme rigour, being searched to the very skin for money, as it is death to transport any gold or silver coin from Persia, except that of the reigning king. They likewise look narrowly for horses and slaves, neither of which are allowed to be taken out of the country.
We remained here two days waiting for certain Armenians, with whom we travelled the rest of the journey, leaving our former companions. The 9th of August we went only one parasang to a river. The 10th we travelled seven p., and lodged in the open fields. The 11th, four p. to a small village, where we had plenty of provisions. The 12th, four p., where we had to dig for water. The 13th, eight p;. and the 14th, five p. to a village named Draw [Durra], where we remained a day, as it is the custom of those who travel with camels to rest once in four or five days. The 16th, we advanced three p. The 17th, four p. The 18th, five p. to Zaide-basha [Sarbishe], where abundance of carpets are to be had. The 19th we came to a village named Mude [Moti], where also are carpets. The 20th, five p. to Birchen [Berdjan], where are manufactured great quantities of fine felts, and carpets of camels hair, which are sold at the rates of from two to five abacees the maund. At this place we rested a day. The 22d, we went to Dea-zaide [Descaden], where all the inhabitants pretend to be very religious, and sell their carpets, of which they have great abundance, at a cheap rate. The 23rd, three p. The 24th, five p. to Choore [Cors or Corra], an old ruined town. The 25th, three p. The 26th, seven p., when we had brackish stinking water. The 27th we came to Dehuge [Teuke], where is a considerable stream of hot water, which becomes cool and pleasant after standing some time in any vessel. The 28th, we went seven p. to Dea-curma.
The 29th we went five p. to Tobaz, where we had to pay half an abacee for each camel. At this plce all caravans take four or five days' rest, the better to enable them to pass the adjoining salt desert, which extends four long days' journey, and in which many miscarry. We found here a small caravan of an hundred camels, which set off the next day after our arrival. Here, and in the former village, there is great store of dates; and 3000 maunds of the finest silk in Persia are made here yearly, and is carried to Yades [Yezd], a fair city, where likewise they make much raw silk, and where it is manufactured into taffaties, satins, and damasks. The king does not allow the exportation of raw silk, especially into Turkey; but the Portuguese used to carry it to Portugal. Yades [Yezd] is about twelve days' journey from Ispahan, and is twelve p. out of the way from the Indian route to the capital.
The 30th of August we advanced nine p. into the desert, and lay on the ground, having to send our beasts three miles out of the way for water, which was very salt. The 31st, after travelling ten p. we came to water which was not at all brackish. The 1st September we went five p., and had to send two miles for water. The 2nd, we went nine p. to a small castle, where we procured a small quantity of provisions. The 3rd, five p. and lay in the fields, having to send far for water. The 4th, ten p. to Seagan. The 5th, four p. The 6th, ten p. to a castle called Irabad [Hirabad], where we paid half an abacee for each camel. The 7th, six p. The 8th, eight p. to Ardecan, where we rested till the 10th, when we went four p. to Sellef. The 11th, three p. to a small castle named Agea Gaurume. The 12th, nine p,. to a spring in the fields. The 13th, three p. to Beavas. The 14th, four p. to Goolabad, whence Richard Steel rode on to Ispahan, without waiting for the caravan. The 15th we came to Morea Shahabad, five p. The 16th, to Coopa, five p. The 17th, to Dea Sabs, five p. The 18th, four p., and lay in the fields. And on the 19th, after three p., we came to Ispahan.
Richard Steel reached this city on the 15th, at noon, and found Sir Robert Shirley already provided with his dispatches from the king of Persia, as ambassador to the king of Spain. Sir Robert, attended by his lady, a bare-footed friar as his chaplain, together with fifty-five Portuguese prisoners and his own followers, were preparing in all haste to go to Ormus, and to embark thence for Lisbon. The purpose is that seeing the Portuguese not able to stand, the Spaniards may be brought in. Six friars remain as hostages for his safe return to Ispahan, as otherwise the king has vowed to cut them all in pieces, which he is likely enough to do, having put his own son to death, and committed a thousand other severities.
On his arrival at Ispahan, Richard Steel delivered his letters to Sir Robert, who durst hardly read them, except now and then, as by stealth, fearing lest the Portuguese should know of them. He afterwards said it was now too late to engage in the business of our nation, and seemed much dissatisfied with the company, and with the merchants and mariners who brought him out. But at length he said he was a true-hearted Englishman, and promised to effect our desires. On the 19th, the friars being absent, he carried both of us to the master of the ceremonies, or Maimondare, and took us along with him to the Grand Vizier, Sarek Hogea, who immediately called his scribes or secretaries, and made draughts [[=drafts]] of what we desired: namely, three firmauns, one of which John Crowther has to carry to Surat, one for Richard Steel to carry to England, and the third to be sent to the governor of Jasques, all sealed with the great seal of the king. The same day that these firmauns were procured, being the last of September, Sir Robert Shirley set out for Shiras in great pomp, and very honourably attended.
Copy of the Firmaun granted by the King of Persia:
"Firmaun or command given unto all our subjects, from the highest to the lowest, and directed to the Souf-basha, or constable of our country, kindly to receive and entertain the English Franks or nation, when any of their ships may arrive at Jasques, or any other of the ports in our kingdom, to conduct them and their merchandize to what place or places they may desire, and to see them safely defended upon our coasts from any other Franks whomsoever. This I will and command you to do, as you shall answer in the contrary. Given at our royal city, this 12th of Ramassan, in the year of our Tareag, 1024. [October, 1615]."
The chief commodities of Persia are raw silks, of which it yields, according to the king's books, 7700 batmans yearly. Rhubarb grows in Chorassan, where also worm-seed grows. Carpets of all sorts, some of silk and gold, silk and silver, half silk, half cotton, &c. The silver monies of Persia are the abacee, mahamoody, shakee, and biftee, the rest being of copper, like the tangas and pisos of India. The abacee weighs two meticals, the mahmoody is half an abacee, and the shahee is half a mahamoody. In the dollar or rial of eight there are thirteen shahees. In a shahee there are two biftees and a half, or ten cashbegs, one biftee being four cashbegs, or two tangs. The weights differ in different places; two mahans of Tauris being only one of Ispahan, and so of the batman. The measure of length, for silks and other stuffs, is the same with the pike of Aleppo, which we judge to be twenty-seven English inches.
John Crowther returned into India, and Richard Steel went to England by way of Turkey, by the following route. Leaving Ispahan on the 2nd December, 1615, he went five p. to a serail. The 3rd, eight p. to another serail. The 4th, six p. to a village. The 5th, seven p. to Dreag. The 6th, seven p. to a serail. The 7th, eight p. to Golpigan [Chulpaigan]. The 8th, seven p. to Curouan. The 9th, seven p. to Showgot. The 10th, six p. to Saro [Sari]. The 11th, eight p. to Dissabad. The 12th, twelve p. to a fair town called Tossarkhan, where he rested some days, because the country was covered deep with snow. The 15th, six p. to Kindaner. The 16th, eight p. to Sano. The 17th to Shar nuovo, where I was stopped by the daiga; but on shewing him letters from the vizier, he bade me depart in the name of God and of Ali. The 18th we passed a bridge where all travellers have to give an account of themselves, and to pay a tax of two shakees for each camel. The 19th we came to Kassam-Khan, the last place under the Persian government, and made a present to the governor, that he might give me a guard to protect me from the Turkomans, which he not only did, but gave me a licence to procure provisions free at his villages without payment, which yet I did not avail myself of.
The 21st of December I began to pass over a range of high mountains which separate the two empires of Persia and Turkey, which are very dangerous; and on the 22d, at the end of eight p. I arrived at a village. The 23rd, after travelling seven p., I lay under a rock. The 24th I came to Mando, eight p., a town belonging to the Turks. The 25th, eight p. to Emomester. The 26th, eight p. to Boroh, passed over a river in a boat, and came that night to Bagdat. I was here strictly examined and searched for letters, which I hid under my saddle; but observing one trying there also, I gave him a sign, on which he desisted, and followed me to my lodging for his expected reward. I fared better than an old Spaniard, only a fortnight before, who was imprisoned in chains in the castle, and his letters read by a Maltese renegado. I found here a Portuguese, who had arrived from Ormus only two days before me. The pacha made us wait here twenty days for a sabandar of his.
The 16th of January, 1616, we passed the river Tigris, and lay on the skirt of the desert. The 17th we travelled five agatzas, being leagues or parasangs. The 18th we came to the Euphrates at Tulquy, where merchandize disembarked for Bagdat, after paying a duty of five per cent. passes to the Tigris, and thence to the Persian gulf. After a tedious journey, partly by the river Euphrates, and partly through the desert, and then by sea, we arrived at Marseilles, in France, on the 15th April, and on the 10th May at Dover.
[Footnote 141: Purch. Pilgr. I. 519. --In the title of this article in the Pilgrims, Agimere, or Azmere, as it is there called, is said to have been the residence of the Great Mogul at the commencement of this journey, and Spahan, or Ispahan, the royal seat of the kings of Persia.--E.]
[Footnote 142: This place, named Azmeer in the Pilgrims, is known in modern geography under the name of Ajmeer, or Agimere.--E.]
[Footnote 143: A coss, or course, as it is uniformly denominated in the Pilgrims, is stated on the margin by Purchas, to be equal to a mile and a half, and in some places two English miles. As more precisely determined in modern geography, the Hindoostanee coss is equal to 1 4/7th English miles, and the Rajput coss to 2 1/6th miles nearly. It would overload this article to attempt critically following all the stations in the present journal, in which the names of places are often so corrupt as to be unintelligible. Such corrections of the text as can be ventured upon are included within brackets.--E.]
[Footnote 144: This is a Spanish or Portuguese term, signifying country village.--E.]
[Footnote 145: These are fair buildings for the accommodation of travellers, many of which were erected by great men. --Purch.]
[Footnote 146: This is probably Sirhind, which is directly in the route, but so disguised in the text as to defy emendation.--E.]
[Footnote 147: This is clearly the Sutuluge, or Setlege, called likewise the Beyah-Kussoor, and Chato dehr, being the easternmost of the Punjab or five rivers, which form the Indus. It was called Hesudrus by the ancients.--E.]
[Footnote 148: From the river mentioned in the text as passed, on this day's journey, this may have been what is now called Gundwall, a little beyond the river Beyab, which is here 100 yards broad.--E.]
[Footnote 149: Lahore is upon the Ravey, the second of the five rivers forming the Indus, counting from the east, and was the Hydroates of the ancients. The Indus proper, or Nilab, is considerably farther west.--E.]
[Footnote 150: In the whole of this itinerary, from Lahore to Multan or Mooltan, down the Ravey river, not a single name in the text, except the two extremities, bears the smallest resemblance to any of those in modern geography.--E.]
[Footnote 151: The great river passed on the 29th must have been the Sinde, Indus, or Nilab, and from the circumstance of falling in next day with the Lacca or Lucca, Pettoallee in the text may possibly be what is named Joghiwallah, on the east side of the Indus, almost opposite the mouth of the Lacca.--E.]
[Footnote 152: Chatzan, a town or fortress in Sewee, or the country of the Balloges; to the west of a ridge of rocky mountains, described as consisting of hard black stone, which skirt the western side of the vale of the Indus, and on the north join the mountains of Wulli in Candahar. Chatzan is in lat. 31° 3' N. and long 69° 42' W. from Greenwich--E.]
[Footnote 153: We here lose the almost infallible guide of Arrowsmith's excellent map of Hindoostan, and are reduced to much inferior helps in following the route through Persia.--E.]
[Footnote 154: In a side-note, Purchas says a parasang consists of sixty furlongs. This is a most egregious error, as the parasang or farsang is exactly equal to 2.78 English miles, or twenty-two two-5ths furlongs.--E.]
[Footnote 155: Farra, the capital of a district of the same name in the north of Segistan, is in lat 33° 40' N. long. 62° 40' E.--E.]
[Footnote 156: Tabaskili, or Tobas Kileke, in Cohestan, is probably the place here meant, in which case the route appears to have passed from Farra by the south of the inland sea or lake of Darrah, but which is not noticed by our travellers. Our conjectural amendments of the names of places on the route are placed within brackets.--E.]
[Footnote 157: The meaning of this passage is quite obscure in the Pilgrims, and the editor does not presume upon clearing the obscurity.--E.]
[Footnote 158: Of the landing of Sir Robert Shirley, see Peyton's first voyage before; and of the rest of his journey see the second voyage of Peyton, in the sequel.--Purch.]
[Footnote 159: Frank is a name given in the East to all western Christians, ever since the expedition to the Holy Land, because the French were the chief nation on that occasion, and because the French council at Clermont was the cause of that event.--Purch.]
[Footnote 160: Assuming the Spanish dollar at 4s. 6d. sterling, the shahee ought therefore to be worth about 4d. 1-6, the mahamoody,8d. 1-3, and the abecee, 1s. 4d. 2-3.--E.]
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