Ghazal 34, Verse 8


dil diyaa jaan ke kyuu;N us ko vafaadaar asad
;Gala:tii kii kih jo kaafir ko musalmaa;N samjhaa

1) why did you give your heart, considering her faithful, Asad?
2) you made an error, in that you considered an infidel [to be] a Muslim


kaafir : 'Infidel, impious; ungrateful; — one denying God, an infidel, an impious wretch; — a Caffre; (met.) a mistress, sweetheart'. (Platts p.801)


Believing a faithless one to be faithful, you gave your heart; that is, you made an error: you considered an infidel a Muslim. The allusive .zil((a of dil-o-jaan has also been articulated in this. (34)

== Nazm page 34


Urdu text: Vajid 1902 {34}

Bekhud Mohani:

One point in this is that one who has no faith is not a Muslim. (82)


In kaafir there is an iihaam . He says, Oh Asad, why did you consider that faithless one to be faithful, and give your heart?.... To consider her faithful is just the same kind of error as to consider an infidel to be a Muslim. (113)


ISLAMIC: {10,2}

Nazm points out the subliminal evocation of the phrase, dil-o-jaan , 'heart and life' (a petrified phrase like 'heart and soul' in English), at the beginning of the first line. The audience might well expect a parallel construction: dil diyaa jaan bhii dii , or the like. Only in retrospect is it possible to pick up the correct sense of jaan .

The verb jaan'naa, although it's usually translated 'to know', can also be used for erroneous beliefs; on this see {16,5}. Similarly, the verb samajhnaa can mean not only 'to understand' (accurately), but also 'to consider' (subjectively, perhaps inaccurately); on this see {90,3}.

And Baqir explains the 'misdirection' involved in kaafir . We expect that it will be an affectionate, teasing epithet for the beloved. Only at the end of the line, when we see it contrasted with musalmaa;N , do we realize it's meant literally.

Except, of course, that it still is an epithet for the beloved, both metaphorically and really; since in this verse the distinguishing mark of a musalmaa;N is the faithfulness that she so clearly doesn't show, the two meanings can't entirely be disentangled.

This is another verse that would be hard to interpret as applying to a divine beloved; for more examples see {20,3}.