Ghazal 35, Verse 1


phir mujhe diidah-e tar yaad aayaa
dil jigar-tishnah-e faryaad aayaa

1) again/then wet eyes came to my mind/recollection
2) the heart became {ardent / 'thirsty-livered'} for lament



In the second line aayaa is used with the meaning of hu))aa ; it's a Persian idiom, and the idiom is not used this way in Urdu. (34)

== Nazm page 34


The meaning is that the memory of wet eyes again made the heart long to lament. (34)

Bekhud Mohani:

The heart is preparing to lament. At this time my tear-shedding comes to my mind. That is, formerly when I used to be preparing to lament, then wet eyes always used to keep that afflicted one [the heart] company. But all the blood flowed out. Now in the wet eyes dust is flying. How could the eyes keep it company? The point is that now we are in no state for shedding tears and extinguishing the flaring fire of the heart. (82)


Some people take 'wet eyes' to refer to the beloved's wet eyes. (114)


It is established that jigar-tishnah with the meaning of 'ardent' [appears in at least one early Persian dictionary]. The second point is that jigar-tishnah is no novel construction: it's the inversion of tishnah-jigar [which itself appears in two Persian dictionaries].... From the above discussion it becomes established that in Ghalib's verse jigar-tishnah is entirely correct; in it there's neither obscurity nor novelty nor innovation. (57) [2006: 57]


EYES {3,1}
JIGAR: {2,1}

Fans of S. R. Faruqi should note that this is the only long ghazal for which Faruqi has chosen to include every single verse in his selection of Ghalib's best verses.

As usual, so much can be done (and in fact must be done) to figure out the relationship of these two extremely simple lines. Hasrat and Baqir take the first line to be the cause, and the second line the result: Wet eyes came to mind, therefore I felt like weeping. Bekhud Mohani takes the second line to be the cause, and the first to be the result: I felt like weeping, therefore I remembered the old days when I actually had tears to weep with. Or, of course, both lines could be parallel, and would just describe my habitual melancholy.

'Wet eyes' are also ambiguous. Mine? The beloved's? A sign of grief, and thus grief-evoking? A sign of proper lamentation, and thus nostalgia-evoking? And how are we to read phir -- did this experience happen 'again' (so that it's something that frequently occurs), or 'then' (in response to the second line, or some other stimulus)? Obviously there's 'wetness' in one line and 'thirst' in the other, but how exactly are they to be connected to each other?

Making the 'heart' appear as 'thirsty-livered' adds to the complexity, since these two organs are often depicted in opposition to each other; for more on this see {30,2}-- and also, in the present ghazal itself, {35,4} and {35,6}. Now the heart and liver are somehow working in tandem, or else the heart has its own (metaphorical) liver-- but are they working successfully, generating tears? Or unsuccessfully, vainly lamenting their loss of the power to generate tears? (For more on the opposition between the heart and the liver,

This whole ghazal, one of Ghalib's great classics, is a triumph of that ghazal quality called mood. It's in a 'short meter' [chho;Tii bahr], and has in yaad aayaa , 'came to mind', an unusually long and evocative refrain. What ghazal could be easier to memorize, or more tempting to recite? Small wonder that it's been a favorite with singers.

Those with a technical bent of mind might want to notice that this verse has the same kind of 'contrived rhyme' that {26,9} does (see that verse for discussion).

Here's my long-ago attempt at a translation (1985).