Ghazal 71, Verse 7

{71,7}*

ay tiraa ;Gamzah yak-qalam angez
ay tiraa :zulm sar bah sar andaaz

1) ah your side-glances-- utterly/wholly arousing!

2a) ah your cruelty-- {everywhere / 'head upon head'} throwing/casting!
2b) ah your cruelty-- entirely style/coquetry!

Notes:

angez : 'Stirring up, rousing, exciting, raising, fomenting, causing; --raised, elevated, &c. (used as last member of comp. e.g. fitnah-angez , adj. & s.m. Strife-exciting; mischievous; mischief-maker, &c.)'. (Platts p.98)

 

sar-basar : 'From end to end, totally, wholly, entirely'. (Platts p.648)

 

andaaz : 'Throwing; thrower, caster, shooter; (used as last member of comp. e.g. barq-andaaz , lit. 'lightning-thrower,' a matchlock-man'. (Platts p.90)

andaaz : 'Elegance, grace; mode, manner, style, fashion, pattern; carriage, bearing, gait'. (Platts p.90)

Nazm:

The aspect of these two sentences is that of information [;xabar], but the poet has the intention of inshaa.... ay is the vocative [;harf-e nidaa], and the vocative is inshaa ; for this reason its use is only in inshaa . (72)

== Nazm page 72

Bekhud Mohani:

Both lines are symmetrical [baraabar ke].... Oh beloved, your side-glance is the very essence of airs and graces; and not just that-- your cruelty is entirely coquettish. (154)

Shadan:

Your side-glance is entirely arousing to the emotions of the lover, and your cruelty too, like airs and graces, is completely heart-pleasing. angez doesn't seem very good. (234)

Josh:

This verse ought to be considered, along with [the following one], a verse-set [qi:t((ah-band]. [For more, see {71,8}.] (156)

FWP:

SETS == EXCLAMATION; PARALLELISM

This verse is as conspicuous an example of parallelism as you could expect to find (for more on this see {22,5}). We're never in the slightest doubt that the two lines are addressed to the same person, the beloved, and are offering two-fold praise of her qualities. Josh and Bekhud Mohani (154) consider these two verses to constitute a verse-set, but this view is very much a minority one.

The piquant quality of the verse is that each line ends with a Persian compound-ender (see definitions above)-- but one that has been used as a free-standing adjective. (He's done something similar in {60,3}.) He explains this in the verse itself. In the first line, your coquettish sidelong glances are not this-arousing or that-arousing, they are entirely, globally, simply, 'arousing'. For this totalness he has used yak-qalam , the same expression as in {69,2}; for more on these constructions, see {11,1}.

In the second line, your cruelty is apparently not this-throwing or that-throwing, but utterly, from-one-end-to-the-other [sar-basar] everything-throwing (2a). And here we realize Ghalib's usual cleverness, for he has created an iihaam of sorts (a backwards one, technically speaking). By the strong parallelism with the first line, he has caused us to read andaaz as a specialized Persian compound-ender used in an unusual way. Whereas of course, the moment we stop to consider, we realize that andaaz is an absolutely established, classic word for manner, style, airs and graces, as in (2b); on the poet's own andaaz see {62,11}.

One can even look a bit further. What if we insist on reading the Persian compound-enders as really the latter part of (unusual) compounds? Then in the first line your side-glances are '{whole/particular/unique}-pen-arousing', which is perfect since they are being celebrated in a written poem. And in the second line your cruelty is, literally, 'head-upon-head-throwing', What could be a better final touch for a lovely, witty, deceptive, pseudo-simple verse?

Here's my long-ago attempt at a translation (1985).