12 == GLOSSARY

 

This glossary contains exceptional words of all kinds that you may find it useful to know about. It includes only selected examples of the more "regularly" irregular words of Persian origin described in Section 4.2, and of the extremely irregular Arabic words described in Section 4.4. It does include a large number of Indic conjunct words (described in Section 4.3), and many miscellaneous irregularly scanned words. It also includes as many words of flexible syllable division and spelling (Section 2.3 and Section 2.4) as possible, together with the basic flexible monosyllables (Section 2.2). It's good for browsing as well as reference. It will be useful to anyone trying to write poetry, and also to anyone reading poetry texts in which many editorial or calligraphic errors occur--because such errors often involve incorrect substitutions among the variant choices for words like those in this glossary.

The glossary is in Urdu alphabetical order. Where two or more scansions and/or spellings are possible for a word, we've tried to enter the most commonly used forms first.

[aa-p hii] (= - x), (= x), "one's own self" { aap hii }
[aa-phii] (= x) { aaphii }
[aa-pii] (= x) { aapii }

[u-;Thaa] (- x), perf. of [u;Thnaa] { u;Thaa }
[u;T-;Thaa] (= x) { u;T;Thaa }

[aa-;xir] (= =), "finally" { aa;xir }
[aa-;xii-r] (= = -) { aa;xiir }
[a-;xii-r] (- = -) { a;xiir }

[i-dhar], [u-dhar] (- =), "here," "there" { idhar }
[ii-dhar, uu-dhar] (= =) { iidhar }

[az] (=), "from, by, with" (Pers.) { az }
[zi] (-) { z }

[a-shar-fii] (- = x), name of a gold coin { asharfii }
[ash-ra-fii] (= - x) { ashrafii }

[aa-sh-kaa-r] (= - = -), "apparent" { aashkaar }
[aa-sh-kaa-raa] (= - = x) { aashkaaraa }

[aa-shi-yaa-nah] (= - = x), "nest" { aashiyaanah }
[aa-shi-yaa;N] (= - =) { aashiyaa;N }

[aa-gaa-h] (= = -), "aware" { aagaah }
[aa-gah] (= x) { aagah }

[al-laa-h] (= =), (= = -), "God" { allaah }

[um-mii-d] (= = -), "hope" { ummiid }
[u-mii-d] (- = -) { umiid }

[an-jhuu] (= x), (- x), archaic for "tears" { anjhuu }

[in-shaa)) al-laah] (= = = =), (= = = = -), "God willing" { inshaa)) allaah }

[au-r] (= -), (=), with word-grafting (- -), "and" { aur }

[aa-))ii-nah] (= x x), "mirror" { aa))iinah }
[aa-))i-nah] (= - x) { aa))inah }

[e-k] (= -), "one" { ek }
[ik] (=) { ik }
[yak] (=) { yak }

[bil aa-;xir] (= = =), "finally" { baalaa;xir }

[bil far-.z] (= = -), "suppositionally" { baalfar.z }

[bil kul] (= =), "entirely" { baalkul }

[bah an-daa-zah] (- = = x), "according" { bah andaazah }
[ba-an-daa-zah] (- = = x) { baandaazah }

[bach-chah] (= x), "child" { bachchah }
[ba-chah] (- x) { bachah }

[bar-ha-man] (= - =), "Brahman" { barhaman }
[ba-rah-man] (- = =) { barahman }

[ba-rah-nah] (- = x), "naked" { barahnah }
[bar-ha-nah] (= - x) { barhanah }

[ba((-.z] (= -), "a number of" { ba((.z }
[ba((-.ze] (= x) { ba((.ze }

[bul ha-vas] (= - =), "sensualist" { buu al-havas }

[buu-s-taa-n] (= - = -), "garden" { buustaan }
[bus-taa-n] (= = -) { bustaan }

[bah] (-), "with" (Pers.) { bah }

[ba-hut] (- =), "much, many" { bahut }
[bah-ut] (= -), archaic { bahut }

[bhii] (x), "too" { bhii }

[bhii-tar] (= =), "inside" { bhiitar }
[bhi-tar] (- =) { bhitar }

[byaa-h] (= -); (- = -), "wedding" { byaah }

[ba-yak] (- =), [bah] + [yak] { bayak }

[byo-paa-r] (= = -), "business" { byopaar }

[paa-))o;N] (= x), "foot" { paa))o;N }
[paa;N-v] (= x) { paa;Nv }

[pach-chii-s] (= = -), "twenty-five" { pachchiis }
[pa-chii-s] (- = -) { pachiis }

[par-vaa] (= =), "care" { parvaa }
[par-vaa-h] (= = -) { parvaah }

[prii-t] (= -), "love" { priit }

[pa-re-t] (- = -), "ghost" { pret }

[pre-m] (= -), "love" { prem }

[pa-kaa] (- x), "cooked, ripened" { pakaa }
[pak-kaa] (= x) { pakkaa }

[pa-naa-h] (- = -), "refuge" { panaah }
[pa-nah] (- =) { panah }

[pah] (x), "on" { pah }

[pa-hu;Nch-naa] (- = x), "to arrive" { pahu;Nchnaa }
[po;N-ch-naa] (= - x), archaic { po;Nchnaa }
[p'hu;N-chaa] (= x), "arrived" { pahu;Nchaa }

[phu-vaa-r] (- = -), "drizzle" { phuvaar }
[phu-haa-r] (- = -) { phuuhaar }
[phvaa-r] (= -) { phvaar }

[pyaa-r] (= -), (- = -), "love" { pyaar }

[p-yaa-lah] (- = x), (= x), "cup" { pyaalah }

[pai-raa-han] (= = =), "robe" { pairaahan }
[pai-ra-han] (= - =) { pairahan }

[pa-yaa-m] (- = -), "message" { payaam }
[pai-;Gaa-m] (= = -) { pai;Gaam }

[pa-yam-bar] (- = =), "Prophet" { payambar }
[pai-;Gam-bar] (= = =) { pai;Gambar }

[pe-sh-vaa-z] (= - = -), "gown" { peshvaaz }
[pish-vaa-z] (= = -) { pishvaaz }

[taa] (=), "up to, until" { taa }

[ta-))a;s-;sur] (- = =), "effect" { taa))';s;sur }

[ta-))as-suf] (- = =), "grief" { taa))'ssuf }

[ta-))am-mul] (- = =), "hesitation" { taa))'mmul }

[ta-;xay-yul] (- = =), "imagination" { ta;xayyul }
[ta;x-))ii-l] (= = -) { ta;x))iil }

[ta((-))ii-n] (= = -), "appointing" { ta(())iin }
[ta-((ay-yun] (- = =) { ta((ayyun }

[tak] (=), "until" { tak }
[ta-lak] (- =) { talak }

[tu-mhaa-raa] (- = x), same for fem. and plur., "your" { tumhaaraa }

[ta-nuu-r] (- = -), "oven" { tanuur }
[tan-nuu-r] (= = -) { tannuur }
[tan-duu-r] (= = -) { tanduur }

[to] (x), "then" { to }

[tuu] (x), "you" { tuu }

[thaa] (x), same for fem. and plur., "was" { thaa }

[tahh] (=), "under" { tahah }

[ta-))ii;N] (- =), (=), (= =), "oneself" { ta))ii;N }

[te-raa] (= x), same for fem. and plur., "your" { teraa }
[ti-raa] (- x), same for fem. and plur. { tiraa }

[tev-rii] (= x), "brow" { tevrii }

[tyuu;N] (=), "in that way" { tyuu;N }

[jib-ra-))ii-l] (= - = -), "Gabriel" { jibra))iil }
[jib-rii-l] (= = -) { jibriil }

[jib-hah] (= x), "forehead" { jibahah }

[ji-dhar] (- =), "the place where" { jidhar }
[jii-dhar] (= =) { jiidhar }

[jur-))at] (= =), "courage" { jur))aat }
[jur-aat] (= =) { juraat }

[juz-v] (= -), "part" { juzv }
[juz] (=) { juz }

[ja-gah] (- x), usually (- =), "place" { jagah }
[jaa-gah] (= x), usually (= =) { jaagah }

[jo] (x), "the one who" { jo }

[ju-vaa] (- =), "gambling" { juvaa }
[juv-vaa] (= =), rare { juvva }

[j-vaa-r] (- = -), "millet" { jvaar }

[jii] (x), honorific particle { jii }

[jyuu;N] (=), "the way in which" { jyuu;N }

[cha-khaa] (- x), perf. of [chakhnaa] { chakhaa }
[chak-khaa] (= x) { chakkhaa }

[chuu-hi-yaa] (= - x), "mouse" { chuuhiyaa }
[chuh-yaa] (= x) { chuhiyaa }

[chyuu;N-;Tii] (= x), var. of [chii;N;Tii], "ant" { chyuun;Tii }

[;xaa-mo-shii] (= = x), "silence" { ;xaamoshii }
[;xa-mo-shii] (- = x) { ;xamoshii }
[;xaa-mu-shii] (= - x) { ;xaamushii }

[;xi.zr] (= -), "Khizr" { ;xi.zr }
[;xi-.zir] (- =), "Khizir" or "Khizar" { ;xi.zir }

[;xa:t-rah] (= x), "danger" { ;xa:trah }
[;xa-:tar] (- =) { ;xa:tar }

[;xvaa-m-;xvaa-h] (= - = -), "willy-nilly" { ;xvaam;xvaah }

[;xvaa-hish] (= =), "longing" { ;xvaahish }

[;xud] (=), "self" { ;xvud }

[;xu-shii] (- x), "happiness" { ;xvushii }

[daa-man] (= =), "skirt" { daaman }
[daa-maa-n] (= = -) { daamaan }

[du;x-tar] (= =), "daughter" { du;xtar }
[du;x-t] (= -) { du;xt }

[du-kaa-n] (- = -), "shop" { dukaan }
[duu-kaa-n] (= = -) { duukaan }
[duk-kaa-n] (= = -) { dukkaan }

[dulhan] (- =), (= =), "bride" { dulhan }
[duulhan] (- =), (= =) { duulhan }

[do] (x), "two," "give" { do }

[do-baa-rah] (x = x), "twice" { dobaarah }

[du-pa;T-;Tah] (- = x), "long scarf" { dupa;T;Tah }
[do-pa;T-;Tah] (= = x) { dopa;T;Tah }

[do-raa-haa] (x = x), "fork in the road" { doraahaa }

[do-zaa-nuu] (x = x), "kneeling" { dozaanuu }

[do-gaa-naa] (= = x); (- = x), "double" { dogaanaa }

[duu-lhaa] (= =), "bridegroom" { duulhaa }
[duu-lah] (= x), rare { duulah }

[duu-))ii] (x x), "twoness" { duu))ii }

[da-han] (- =), "mouth" { dahan }
[da-haa-n] (- = -) { dahaan }
[da-haa-nah] (- = x) { dahaanah }

[dhyaa-n] (= -), "concentration" { dhyaan }

[dii-gar] (= =), "other" { diigar }
[di-gar] (- =) { digar }

[dii-vaa-nah] (= = x), "mad" { diivaanah }
[di-vaa-nah] (- = x), archaic { divaanah }

[raa-s-tah] (= - x), "road" { raastah }
[ras-tah] (= x) { rastah }

[raa-h] (= -), "road" { raah }
[rah] (=) { rah }

[ru;x-saa-r] (= = -), "cheek" { ru;xsaar }
[ru;x-saa-rah] (= = x) { ru;xsaarah }

[ra-khaa] (- x), same for fem. and plur., "kept" { rakhaa }
[rak-khaa] (= x), same for fem. and plur. { rakkhaa }

[ruu-bah] (= x), "fox" { ruubah }
[ruu-baa-h] (= = -) { ruubaah }

[rah-gu-z;ar] (= - =), "road" { rahguz;ar }
[raa-h-gu-z;ar] (= - - =) { raahguz;ar }
[rah-gu-z;aa-r] (= - = -) { rahguz;aar }
[raa-h-gu-z;aa-r] (= - - = -) { raahguz;aar }

[zaq-quu-m] (= = -), name of an infernal tree { zaqquum }
[za-quu-m] (- = -) { zaquum }

[za-maa-nah] (- = x), "era" { zamaanah }
[za-maa;N] (- =) { zamaa;N }
[za-maa-n] (- = -) { zamaan }
[za-man] (- =) { zaman }

[zin-haa-r] (= = -), "beware" { zinhaar }
[zii-n-haa-r] (= - = -) { ziinhaar }

[saa] (x), "-ish" { saa }

[saa-jan] (= =), "lover" { saajan }
[sa-jan] (- =) { sajan }

[saa-))ii-s] (= = -), "groom" { saa))iis }
[sa-))ii-s] (- = -) { sa))iis }
[sai-s] (= -) { sais }

[sa-rhaa-naa] (- = x), "headboard" { sarhaanaa }

[si-kan-dar] (- = =), "Alexander" { sikandar }
[is-kan-dar] (= = =) { iskandar }

[so] (x), "thus" { so }

[sau] (=), "100" { sau }

[suu] (=), "direction" { suu }

[sa-vaa-r] (- = -), "horseman" { savaar }
[as-vaa-r] (= = -), rare { asvaar }

[svaa;N-g] (= -), "folk opera" { svaa;Ng }
[saa;N-g] (= -) { saa;Ng }

[su-var] (- =), "pig" { suvar }

[suu-raa-j] (= = -), "Swaraj" { suuraaj }
[sva-raa-j] (- = -) { svaraaj }

[sih] (x), "three" { sih }

[sii] (x), "-ish" { sii }

[se] (x), "from, with," "-ish" { se }

[si-yaa-h] (- = -), "black" { siyaah }
[si-yah] (- x) { siyah }

[shaa-h] (= -), "king" { shaah }
[shah] (=) { shah }

[shub-hah] (= -), "suspicion" { shubahah }

[shu-tur] (- =), "camel" { shutur }
[ush-tur] (= =) { ushtur }

[sha-raa-r] (- = -), "spark" { sharaar }
[sha-rar] (- =) { sharar }
[sha-raa-rah] (- = x) { sharaarah }

[sha-kar] (- =), "sugar" { shakar }
[shak-kar] (= =) { shakkar }

[.saa-buu-n] (= = -), "soap" { .saabuun }
[.saa-bun] (= =) { .saabun }

[.su-var] (- =), pl. of [.suurat], "face" { .suvar }

[:tar-;h] (= -), "manner" { :tar;h }
[:ta-ra;h] (- =); (- x), (modern) { :tara;h }

[:ta-raf] (- =), "direction" { :taraf }
[:tar-f] (= -) { :tarf }

[:ta-ma((] (- =), "greed" { :tama(( }
[:tam-((a] (= -) { :tam((a }

[fi-ran-g] (- = -), "European" { firang }
[af-ran-g] (= = -) { afrang }

[fu-zuu;N] (- x), "increasing" { fuzuu;N }
[af-zuu;N] (= x) { afzuu;N }

[fa-saa-nah] (- = x), "story" { fasaanah }
[af-saa-nah] (= = x) { afsaanah }

[fu-sur-dah] (- = x), "sorrowful" { fusurdah }
[af-sur-dah] (= = x) { afsurdah }

[fu-suu;N] (- x), "increasing" { fusuu;N }
[af-suu;N] (= x) { afsuu;N }

[fu-;Gaa;N] (- x), "sighing" { fi;Gaa;N }
[af-;Gaa;N] (= x) { af;Gaa;N }

[fi-gaa-r] (- = -), "wounded" { figaar }
[af-gaa-r] (= = -) { afgaar }

[fu-laa;N] (- =), "such-and-such" { fulaa;N }
[fa-laa-naa] (- = x) { falaanaa }

[fil-;haa-l] (= = -), "at present" { fii al-;haal }

[fil-;ha-qii-qat] (= - = -), "in reality" { fii al-;haqiiqat }

[qur-aan] (= = -), "Qur'an" { qur aan }
[qu-raa-n] (- = -), rare { quraan }

[kaa] (x), "of" { kaa }

[kaa-sah] (= x), "bowl" { kaasah }
[kaa-s] (= -) { kaas }

[krish-n] (= -), "Krishna" { krishn }

[ki-naa-rah] (- = x), "riverbank" { kinaarah }
[ka-naa-r] (- = -) { kinaar }

[ko] (x), "to" { ko }

[ko))ii] (x x); archaic variant (=); "anyone, any" { ko))ii }

[kih] (-); archaic variant: (=); "that" { kih }

[kahh] (=), root of [kahnaa] { kahah }

[kho-))e] (= x), "lost" { kho))e }
[kho))e] (=), archaic { kho))e }

polite imperative of [kahnaa] (- - x) { kahiye }
(= x) { kahye }

[kii] (x), "of" { kii }

[ke] (x), "of" { ke }

[kyaa] (=), "what" { kyaa }

[ki-yaa-rii] (- = x), "flowerbed" { kiyaarii }
[kyaa-rii] (= x) { kyaarii }

[kyuu;N] (=), "why" { kyuu;N }

[gaa-h] (= -), "place" { gaah }
[gah] (=) { gah }

[gar] (=), "if" { gar }
[a-gar] (- =) { agar }

[gar-chah] (= x), "although" { garchah }
[a-gar-chah] (- = x) { agarchah }

[gur-sa-nah] (= - x), "hungry" { gursanah }
[gu-ras-nah] (- = x) { gurasnah }

[gar-han] (= =), "eclipse" { garhan }
[ga-han] (- =) { gahan }

[gu-lis-taa;N (- = =), "garden" { gulistaa;N }
[gul-si-taa;N] (= - =) { gulsitaa;N }

[gu-naa-h] (- = -), "sin" { gunaah }
[gu-nah] (- x) { gunah }

[go] (=); very rare: (-); "although" { go }

[guu-ruu] (- =), "religious teacher" { guuruu }
[gu-ruu] (- =) { guruu }

[gau-har] (= =), "pearl" { gauhar }
[gu-har] (- =) { guhar }

[ga-))e] (- x), "went" { ga))e }
[ga))e] (=), archaic { ga))e }

[gyaan] (= -), "knowledge" { gyaan }

[laa-sh] (= -), "corpse" { laash }
[laa-shah] (= x) { laashah }

[li-khaa] (- x), same for fem., plur.; "wrote" { likhaa }
[lik-khaa] (= x), same for fem., plur. { likkhaa }

[lo-haa-r] (- = -), "blacksmith" { lohaar }
[lu-haa-r] (- = -) { luhaar }

[le-kin] (= =), "but" { lekin }
[le-k] (= -), archaic { lek }

[maa-rg] (= -), "road" { maarg }

[maa-shaa)) al-laah] (= = = =), (= = = = -), "as God wills" { maashaa)) allaah }

[ma-;aa-l] (- = -), "property" { ma;aal }

[maa))-muu-n] (= = -), same as [maamuun], "safe" { maa))muun }

[maa-h] (= -), "moon" { maah }
[mah] (=) { mah }

[mi.s-ra((] (= =), "line of verse" { mi.sra(( }
[mi.s-ra((h] (= =) { mi.sra((h }
[mi.s-raa-((] (= = -) { mi.sraa(( }

[mu-vaa] (- x), "wretch" { muvaa }
[muu-))ii] (- x) { muu))ii }
[muu-))e] (- x) { muu))e }

[mau-j] (= -), "wave" { mauj }
[mau-jah] (= x) { maujah }

[mu-))a;x-;xar] (- = =), same as [muva;x;xar], "latter" { muu))a;x;xar }

[mu-))ad-dab] (- = =), same as [muvaddab], "courteous" { muu))addab }

[mu-))ar-ri;x (- = =), same as [muvarri;x], "chronicler" { muu))arri;x }

[muu;Nhh] (=), same as [mu;Nh], "mouth" { muu;Nhah }

[mi-yaa;N] (- x), (term of address or endearment) { miyaa;N }
[myaa;N] (=) { myaa;N }

[me-raa] (= x), same for fem. and plur., "my" { meraa }
[mi-raa] (- x), same for fem. and plur. { miraa }

[me;N] (x), "in" { me;N }

[mai;N] (x), "I" { mai;N }

[mii-naa-r] (= = x) "tower" { miinaar }
[mi-naa-r] (- = -) { minaar }

[naa-;xuu-n] (= = -), "fingernail" { naa;xuun }
[naa-;xun] (= =) { naa;xun }

[naa-gaa-h] (= = -), "unaware" { naagaah }
[naa-gahh] (= x) { naagahah }

[naa-))o] (= x), "boat" { naa))o }
[naa-v] (= x) { naav }

[ni-baa-h-naa] (- = - x), "to uphold" { nibaahnaa }
[ni-bhaa-naa] (- = x) { nibhaanaa }

[na-dii] (- x), "river" { nadii }
[nad-dii] (= x) { naddii }

[nash-tar] (= =), "lancet" { nashtar }
[ne-sh-tar] (= - =) { neshtar }

[nash-))ah] (= x), "intoxication" { nash))ah }
[na-shah] (- x) { nashah }

[na-:zaa-rah] (- = x), "sight" { na:zaarah }
[na:z-:zaa-rah] (= = x) { na:z:zaarah }

[ni-gaa-h] (- = -), "glance" { nigaah }
[ni-gah] (- x) { nigah }

[nan-haa] (= x), "tiny" { nanhaa }

[nau] (=), "nine," "new" { nau }

[na-vaa-b] (- = -), "Navab" { navaab }
[nav-vaa-b] (= = -) { navvaab }

[nau-shah] (= x), "bridegroom" { naushah }
[nau-shaa-h] (= = -) { naushaah }

[nah] (-); (=), rare and archaic; "not" { nah }

[nah] (-), "neither" { nah }
[nai] (=), archaic { nai }

[ne] (x), ergative marker { ne }

[na-yas-taa;N] (- = =), "reed-thicket" { nayastaa;N }
[nai-si-taa;N] (= - =) { naisitaa;N }

[var-nah] (= x), "otherwise" { varnah }
[va-gar-nah] (- = x) { vagarnah }

[vuh] (x), "he, she it" { vuh }

[va-haa;N] (- x), "there" { vahaa;N }
[vaa;N] (=), archaic { vaa;N }

[vai] (=), rare and archaic, "they" { vai }

[haa-))e] (= x), "alas" { haa))e }
[haay] (=) { hay }

[ho] (x), subjunc. or fam. imp. of [honaa] { ho }

[hu-))aa] (- x), "occurred" { huu))aa }
[hu-))e] (- x) { huu))e }
[hu-))ii] (- x) { huu))ii }
[hu-))ii;N] (- x) { huu))ii;N }

[ho-sh-yaa-r] (= - = -), "alert" { hoshyaar }
[hush-yaa-r] (= = -) { hushyaar }

[ho;N] (x), "might be" { ho;N }

[huu;N] (x), "am" { huu;N }

[hii] (x), emphatic particle { hii }

[hai] (x), "is" { hai }

[hai;N] (x), "are" { hai;N }

[yaa] (=); (x), archaic; "or," "oh" { yaa }

[yuu-rish] (= =), (- =), "assault" { yuurish }

[yih] (x), "this" { yih }

[ya-haa;N] (- x), "here" { yahaa;N }
[yaa;N] (=), archaic { yaa;N }

[yuu;N] (x), "in such a way" { yuu;N }

[ye] (=), rare and archaic, "these" { ye }

 


 
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