*LETTER 1* ~~ Introductory Remarks. --The characteristic simplicity of manners exhibited in Native families. --Their munificent charity. --The Syaads. Their descent, and the veneration paid to them. --Their pride of birth. --Fast of Mahurrum. --Its origin. --The Sheahs and Soonies. --Memorandum of distances. --Mount Judee (Judea), the attributed burying-place of Adam and Noah. --Mausoleum of Ali. --Tomb of Eve. --Meer Hadjee Shah.
*LETTER 2* ~~ Celebration of Mahurrum. --The Tazia. --Mussulmaun Cemeteries. --An Emaum-baarah. --Piety of the ladies. --Self-inflicted abstinence and privations endured by each sex. --Instances of the devotional zeal of the Mussulmauns. --Attempted infringement on their religious formalities. --The Resident at Lucknow. --Enthusiastic ardour of the poor. --Manner of celebrating the Mahurrum in opposition to the precepts of the Khoraun. --Mosque and Emaum-baarah contrasted. --The supposition of Mussulmauns practising idolatry confuted.
*LETTER 3* ~~ Continuation of Mahurrum. --Consecration of Banners. --Durgah at Lucknow. --Its origin explained. --Regarded with peculiar veneration. --The Nuwaub vows to build a new one. --Its description. --Procession to the Durgah. --Najoomies. --Influence possessed and practised by them. --Eunuchs. --Anecdotes of some having attained great honours and wealth. --Presents bestowed upon them generally revert to the donor. --Rich attire of male and female slaves.
*LETTER 4* ~~ Mahurrum concluded. --Night of Mayndhie. --Emaum-baarah of the King of Oude. --Procession to Shaah Nudghiff. --Last day of Mahurrum. --Chattahs. --Musical instruments. --Zeal of the Native gentlemen. --Funeral obsequies over the Tazia at Kraabaallah. --Sentiments of devout Mussulmauns. --The fast followed by acts of charity. --Remarks on the observance of Mahurrum.
*LETTER 5* ~~ Time. --How divided in Hindoostaun. --Observances after Mahurrum--Luxuries and enjoyments resumed. --Black dye used by the ladies. --Their nose-ring. --Number of rings worn in their ears. --Mode of dressing their hair. --Aversion to our tooth-brushes. --Toilet of the ladies. --The Pyjaamahs. --The Ungeeah (bodice). --The Courtie. --The Deputtah. --Reception of a superior or elder amongst the ladies. --Their fondness for jewels. --Their shoes. --The state of society amongst the Mussulmaun ladies. --Their conversational endowments. --Remark upon the fashion and duty of beards.
*LETTER 6* ~~ The Mussulmaun religion. --Sectarians. --Their difference of faith. --History of the Soonies. --The Caliphas Omir, Osman, Aboubuker, &c. --Mahumud's parting charge to Ali. --Omir's jealousy of Ali. --The Khoraun. --How compiled. --The Calipha Omir held in detestation. --Creed of the Sheahs. --Funeral service. --Opinions of the Mussulmauns respecting the Millennium. --The foundation of their faith exhibited. --Sentiments of the most devout followers of Mahumud. --Bridge of Sirraat, the Scales, &c., explained. --Emaum Mhidhie. --Prophecy of his reappearance. --Its early fulfilment anticipated. --Discourse with Meer Hadjee Shaah on this subject.
*LETTER 7* ~~ Namaaz (daily prayer). --The Mussulmaun prayers. --Their different names and times. --Extra prayer-service. --The Mosque. --Ablutions requisite previous to devotion. --Prostrations at prayers. --Mosque described. --The Mussulmaun's Sabbath. --Its partial observance. --The amusements of this life not discontinued on the Sabbath. --Employment of domestics undiminished on this day. --Works of importance then commenced. --Reasons for appropriating Friday to the Sabbath. --The Jews opposed to Mahumud. --The Prophet receives instructions from the angel Gabriel. --Their import and definition. --Remarks of a Commentator on the Khoraun. --Prayer of intercession. --Pious observance of Christmas day by a Native Lady. --Opinions entertained of our Saviour. --Additional motives for prayer. --David's Mother's prayer. --Anecdote of Moses and a Woodcutter. --Remarks upon the piety and devotion of the female Mussulmauns.
*LETTER 8* ~~ The Fast of Rumzaun. --Motives for its strict observance. --Its commencement and duration. --Sentiments of Meer Hadjee Shaah on the day of fasting. --Adherence of the females to the observing this fast. --How first broken. --Devout persons extend the term to forty days. --Children permitted to try their zeal. --Calamitous effects of the experiment. --Exemptions from this duty. --Joyful termination of the fast. --Celebration of Eade on the last day. --The Nuzza. --Nautchwomen and Domenie. --Surprise of the Natives at European dancing. --Remarks on their Music. --Anecdotes of Fatima. --The Chuckee.
*LETTER 9* ~~ The Hadje (Pilgrimage to Mecca). --Commanded to be performed by Mahumud. --Eagerness of both sexes to visit the Prophet'stomb. --Qualifications requisite for the undertaking. --Differentroutes from India to Mecca. --Duties of the pilgrims at the Holy House. --Mecca and its environs. --Place of Abraham. --The Bedouins. --Anecdote of a devotee and two pilgrims. --A Bedouin Arab and the travellers to Mecca. --The Kaabah (Holy House). --Superstitious regard to a chain suspended there. --Account ofthe gold water-spout. --Tax levied on pilgrims visiting the tomb of Mahumud by the Sheruff of Mecca. --Sacred visit to the tombs of Ali, Hasan, and Hosein. --The importance attached to this duty. --Travellers annoyed by the Arabs. --An instance recorded. --The Nudghiff Usheruff. --Anecdotes of Syaad Harshim.
*LETTER 10* ~~ The Zuckhaut (God's portion). --Syaads restricted the benefit of this charity. --The Sutkah. --The Emaum's Zaumunee (protection). --The Tenths, or Syaads' Due. --Mussulmauns attribute thanks to God only, for all benefits conferred. --Extracts from the 'Hyaatool Kaaloob'. --Mahumud's advice. --His precepts tend to inculcate and encouragecharity. --Remarks on the benevolence of Mussulmauns.
*LETTER 11* ~~ Mussulmaun festivals. --Buckrah Eade. --Ishmael believed to have been offered in sacrifice by Abraham and not Isaac. --Descent of the Mussulmauns from Abraham. --The Eade-gaarh. --Presentation of Nuzzas. --Elephants. --Description of the Khillaut (robe of honour). --Customs on the day of Buckrah Eade. --Nou-Roze (New Year'sDay). --Manner of its celebration. --The Bussund (Spring-colour). --The Sah-bund. --Observances during this month. --Festival of the New Moon. --Superstition of the Natives respecting the influence of the Moon. --Their practices during an eclipse. --Supposed effects of the Moon on a wound. --Medicinal application of lime in Hindoostaun. --Observance of Shubh-burraat.
*LETTER 12* ~~ The Zeenahnah. --Its interior described. --Furniture, decorations, &c. --The Purdah (curtains). --Bedstead. --The Musnud (seat of honour). --Mirrors and ornamental furniture disused. --Display on occasions of festivity. --Observations on the Mussulmaun Ladies. --Happiness in their state of seclusion. --Origin of secluding females by Mahumud. --Anecdote. --Tamerlane's command prohibiting females being seen in public. --The Palankeen. --Bearers. --Their general utility and contentedness of disposition. --Habits peculiar to Mussulmaun Ladies. --Domestic arrangements of a Zeenahnah. --Dinnerand its accompanying observances. --The Lota and Lugguns. --The Hookha. --Further investigation of the customs adopted in Zeenahnahs.
*LETTER 13* ~~ Plurality of wives. --Mahumud's motive for permitting this privilege. --State of society at the commencement of the Prophet's mission. --His injunctions respecting marriage. --Parents invariably determine on the selection of a husband. --First marriages attended by a public ceremony. --The first wife takes precedence of all others. --Generosity of disposition evinced by the Mussulmaun ladies. --Divorces obtained under certain restrictions. --Period of solemnizing marriage. --Method adopted in choosing a husband or wife. --Overtures and contracts of marriage, how regulated. --Mugganee, the first contract. --Dress of the bride elect on this occasion. --The ceremonies described as witnessed. --Remarks on the bride. --Present from the bridegroom on Buckrah Eade.
*LETTER 14* ~~ Wedding ceremonies of the Mussulmauns. --The new or full moon propitious to the rites being concluded. --Marriage settlements unknown. --Control of the wife over her own property. --Three days and nights occupied in celebrating the wedding. --Preparations previously made by both families. --Ostentatious display on these occasions. --Dayof Sarchuck. --Customs on the day of Mayndhie. --Sending Presents. --Day of Baarraat. --Procession of the bridegroom to fetch the bride. --The bride's departure to her new home. --Attendant ceremonies explained. --Similarity of the Mussulmaun and Hindoo ceremonies. --Anecdote of a Moollah. --Tying the Narrah to the Moosul.
*LETTER 15* ~~ On the birth and management of children in Hindoostaun. --Increase of joy on the birth of a Son. --Preference generally shown to male children. --Treatment of Infants. --Day of Purification. --Offerings presented on this occasion to the child. --The anniversary of the birthday celebrated. --Visit of the father to the Durgah. --Pastimes of boys. --Kites. --Pigeons. --The Mhogdhur. --Sword-exercise. --The Bow and Arrows. --The Pellet-bow. --Crows. --Sports of Native gentlemen. --Cock-fighting. --Remarks upon horses, elephants, tigers, and leopards. --Pigeon-shooting. --Birds released from captivity on particular occasions. --Reasons for the extension of the royal clemency in Native Courts. --Influence of the Prime Minister in the administration of justice.
*LETTER 16* ~~ Remarks on the trades and professions of Hindoostaun. --The Bazaars. --Naunbye (Bazaar cook). --The Butcher, and other trades. --Shroffs (Money-changers). --Popular cries in Native cities. --The articles enumerated and the venders of them described. --The Cuppers. --Leechwomen. --Ear-cleaners. --Old silver. --Pickles. --Confectionery. --Toys. --Fans. --Vegetables and fruit. --Mangoes. --Melons. --Melon-cyder. --Fish. --Bird-catcher. --The Butcher-bird, the Coel, and Lollah. --Fireworks. --Parched corn. --Wonder-workers. --Snakes. --Anecdote of the Moonshie and the Snake-catcher. --The Cutler. --Sour curds. --Clotted cream. --Butter. --Singular process of the Natives in making butter. --Ice. --How procured in India. --Ink. --All writing dedicated to God by the Mussulmauns. --The reverence for the name of God. --The Mayndhie and Sulmah.
*LETTER 17* ~~ Seclusion of Females. --Paadshah Begum. --The Suwaarree. --Female Bearers. --Eunuchs. --Rutts. --Partiality of the Ladies to Large retinues. --Female Companions. --Telling the Khaunie. --Games of the Zeenahnah. --Shampooing. --The Punkah. --Slaves and slavery. --Anecdote. --The Persian Poets. --Fierdowsee. --Saadie, his 'Goolistaun'. --Haafiz. --Mahumud Baarkur. --'Hyaatool Kaaloob'. --Different manner of pronouncing Scripture names.
*LETTER 18* ~~ Evils attending a residence in India. --Frogs. --Flies. --Blains. --Musquitoes. --The White Ant. --The Red Ant. --Their destructive habits. --A Tarantula. --Black Ants. --Locusts. --Superstition of the Natives upon their appearance. --The Tufaun, or Haundhie (tempest). --The rainy season. --Thunder and lightning. --Meteors. --Earthquakes. --A city ruined by them. --Reverence of the Mussulmauns for saints. --Prickly heat. --Cholera Morbus. --Mode of Treatment. --Temperance the best remedy. --Recipe.
*LETTER 19* ~~ Kannoge. --Formerly the capital of Hindoostaun. --Ancient castle. --Durability of the bricks made by the aborigines. --Prospect from the Killaah (castle). --Ruins. --Treasures found therein. --TheDurgah Baallee Peer Kee. --Mukhburrahs. --Ancient Mosque. --Singular structure of some stone pillars. --The Durgah Mukdoom Jhaunneer. --Conversions to the Mussulmaun Faith. --Anecdote. --Ignorance of the Hindoos. --Sculpture of the Ancients. --Mosque inhabited by thieves. --Discovery of Nitre. --Method of extracting it. --Conjectures of its produce. --Residence in the castle. --Reflections.
*LETTER 20* ~~ Delhi. --Description of the city. --Marble hall. --The Queen's Mahul (palace). --Audience with the King and Queen. --Conversation with them. --Character of their Majesties. --Visit to a Muckburrah. --Soobadhaars. --The nature of the office. --Durgah of Shah Nizaam ood deen. --Tomb of Shah Allum. --Ruins in the vicinity of Delhi. --Antique pillars (Kootub). --Prospect from its galleries. --Anecdotesof Juangheer and Khareem Zund.
*LETTER 21* ~~ Natural Productions of India. --Trees, shrubs, plants, fruits, &c. --Their different uses and medicinal qualities. --The Rose. --Native medical practice. --Antidote to Hydrophobia. --Remedy for the venom of the Snake. --The Chitcherah (Inverted thorn). --The Neam-tree. --The Hurrundh (Castor-tree). --The Umultass (Cassia-tree). --The Myrtle. --The Pomegranate. --The Tamarind. --The Jahmun. --The Mango. --The Sherrefah. --White and red Guavers. --The Damascus Fig. --The Peach, and other Fruits. --The Mahdhaar (Fire-plant). --The Sirrakee and Sainturh (Jungle-grass). --The Bamboo, and its various uses enumerated.
*LETTER 22* ~~ Monkeys. --Hindoo opinions of their Nature. --Instances of their sagacity. --Rooted animosity of the Monkey tribe to the snake. --Cruelty to each other when maimed. --The female remarkable for affection to its young. --Anecdotes descriptive of the belief of the Natives in the Monkey being endowed with reason. --The Monkeys and the Alligator. --The Traveller and the Monkeys. --The Hindoo and the Monkey.
*LETTER 23* ~~ The Soofies. --Opinion of the Mussulmauns concerning Solomon. --The Ood-ood. --Description of the Soofies and their sect. --Regarded with great reverence. --Their protracted fasts. --Their opinion esteemed by the Natives. --Instance of the truth of their predictions. --The Saalik and Majoob Soofies. --The poets Haafiz and Saadie. --Character and attainments of Saadie. --His 'Goolistaun'. --Anecdotes descriptive of the origin of that work. --Farther remarks on the character and history of Saadie. --Interesting anecdotes illustrative of his virtues and the distinguishing characteristics of the Soofies.
*LETTER 24* ~~ The Soofies continued. --Eloy Bauxh. --Assembly of Saalik Soofies. --Singular exhibition of their zeal. --Mystery of Soofeism. --The terms Soofie and Durweish explained. --Anecdote of Shah Sherif. --Shah Jee and the Paltaan. --Dialogue on death between Shah Jee and his wife. --Exemplary life of his grandson. --Anecdote of a Mussulmaun lady. --Reflections on modern Hindoos. --Anecdotes of Shah ood Dowlah and Meer Nizaam.
*LETTER 25* ~~ Mussulmaun Devotees. --The Chillubdhaars. --Peculiar mode of worship. --Propitiatory offerings. --Supposed to be invulnerable to fire. --The Maadhaars or Duffelees. --Character of the founder. --Pilgrimage to his tomb. --Females afflicted on visiting it. --Effects attributed to the violation of the sanctuary by a foreigner. --Superstition of the Natives. --Anecdote of Sheikh Suddoo and the Genii. --The way of the world exemplified, a Khaunie (Hindoostaunie fable). --Moral fable. --The King who longed for fruit.
*LETTER 26* ~~ Superstition of the Natives. --Fair annually kept by Hindoos. --Supposed practice of witchcraft by an old woman. --Assaulted by an infuriated populace. --Rescued by a Native gentleman. --He inquires their reasons for persecuting her. --Is instrumental in appeasing their malignity. --Endeavours to remove their prejudice. --Proneness of Asiatics to superstition. --Opinion of a Mussulmaun on the influence of evil spirits. --Account of a woman possessed by an evil spirit. --Dialogue with her during the paroxysms of her affliction. --Means used for her recovery. --Further allusions to the false notions of the Natives respecting supernatural agency.
*LETTER 27* ~~ Memoir of the life of Meer Hadjee Shah. --His descent. --Anecdote of a youthful exploit. --His predilection for the army. --Leaves his home to join the army of a neighbouring Rajah. --Adventures on the way. --Is favourably received and fostered by the Rajah. --His first pilgrimageto Mecca. --Occurrences during his stay in Arabia. --Description of a tiger-hunt. --Detail of events during his subsequent pilgrimages. --The plague. --Seizure by pirates. --Sketch of the life of Fatima, an Arabian lady. --Relieved from slavery by Meer Hadjee Shah. --He marries her. --Observations on the piety of his life. --Concluding remarks.
~~ Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali index page ~~ Glossary ~~ FWP's main page ~~