Source: Abu'l-Fazl 'Allami, A'IN-I AKBARI (3 vols.). Vol. 1 trans. H. Blochmann, 1927. Vol. 1, p. 27. Ed. *ZDJ*

Book 1, Chapter 9: The Method of Extracting the Silver from Ashes

Whatever ashes and dross have been collected, both before and after the process of aloni, they mix with double the quantity of pure lead, put them into a crucible, and keep them for one watch over the fire. When the metal is cold, they refine it as described under the article Sabbak. The ashes of it are also kharal. The saloni process is also performed in other ways well known to those conversant with the business.

18.    The Paniwar, having melted the kharal, separates the silver from the copper. His fee for every tola of silver is 1.5 dams. As a return for the profit he makes, he pays monthly 300 dams to the diwan. Having reduced the kharal to small bits, he adds to every man of it l.5 sers of tangar (borax), and three sers of pounded natron (ashkhar), and kneads them together. He then puts this mass, ser by ser, into the vessel above described, and melts it, when lead mixed with silver collects in the pit. This is afterwards refined by the process of the sabbak, and the lead which separates from this, and mixes with the ashes, turns punhar.

19.    The Paikar buys the saloni and kharal from the goldsmiths of the city, and carries them to the mint to be melted, and makes a profit on the gold and silver. For every man of saloni, he gives 17 dams, and for the same quantity of kharal 14 dams, to the exchequer.

20.    The Nicho'i-wala brings old copper coins, which are mixed with silver, to be melted; and from 100 tolas of silver, 31 rupees go to the diwan; and when he wishes to coin the silver, he pays a fixed quantity for it as duty.

21.    The Khak-shoy. When the owners of the metals get their gold and silver in the various ways which have now been described, the Khak-shoy sweeps the mint, takes the sweepings to his own house, washes them, and gains a profit. Some of the sweepers carry on a very flourishing trade. The state receives from this man a monthly gift of 12.5 rupees.

And in like manner all the officers of the mint pay a monthly duty to the state, at the rate of three dams for every 100 dams.

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