14. COOLIE LOCATIONS OR GHETTOES?
Some of the classes which
render us the greatest social service, but which we Hindus have chosen
to regard as 'untouchables', are relegated to remote quarters of a town
or a village, called in Gujarati dhedvado, and the name has acquired
a bad odour. Even so in Christian Europe the Jews were once 'untouchables',
and the quarters that were assigned to them had the offensive name of 'ghettoes'.
In a similar way today we have become the untouchables of South Africa.
It remains to be seen how far the sacrifice of Andrews and the magic wand
of Sastri succeed in rehabilitating us.
The ancient Jews regarded themselves
as the chosen people of God, to the exclusion of all others, with the result
that their descendents were visited with a strange and even unjust retribution.
Almost in a similar way the Hindus have considered themselves Aryas
or civilized, and a section of their own kith and kin as Anaryas
or untouchables, with the result that a strange, if unjust, nemesis is
being visited not only upon the Hindus in South Africa but the Musalmans
and Parsis as well, inasmuch as they belong to the same country and have
the same colour as their Hindu brethren.
The reader will have now realized
to some extent the meaning of the word 'locations' with which I have headed
this chapter. In South Africa we have acquired the odious name of 'coolies'.
The word 'coolies' in India means only a porter or hired workman, but in
South Africa it has a contemptuous connotation. It means what a pariah
or an untouchable means to us, and the quarters assigned to the 'coolies'
are known as 'coolie locations'. Johannesburg had one such location, but
unlike other places with locations where the Indians had tenancy rights,
here they acquired their plots on a lease of 99 years. People were densely
packed in the location, the area of which never increased with the increase
in population. Beyond arranging to clean the latrines in the location in
a haphazard way, the Municipality did nothing to provide any sanitary facilities,
much less good roads or lights. It was hardly likely that it would safeguard
its sanitation, when it was indifferent to the welfare of the residents.
These were too ignorant of the rules of municipal sanitation and hygiene
to do without the help or supervision of the Municipality. If those who
went there had all been Robinson Crusoes, theirs would have been a different
story. But we do not know of a single emigrant colony of Robinson Crusoes
in the world. Usually people migrate abroad in search of wealth and trade,
but the bulk of the Indians who went to South Africa were ignorant, pauper
agriculturalists, who needed all the care and protection that could be
given them. The traders and educated Indians who followed them were very
The criminal negligence of the
Municipality and the ignorance of the Indian settlers thus conspired to
render the location thoroughly insanitary. The Municipality, far from doing
anything to improve the condition of the location, used the insanitation,
caused by their own neglect, as a pretext for destroying the location,
and for that purpose obtained from the local legislature authority to dispossess
the settlers. This was the condition of things when I settled in Johannesburg.
The settlers, having proprietary
rights in their land, were naturally entitled to compensation. A special
tribunal was appointed to try the land acquisition cases. If the tenant
was not prepared to accept the offer of the Municipality, he had a right
to appeal to the tribunal, and if the latter's award exceeded the Municipality's
offer, the Municipality had to bear the costs.
Most of the tenants engaged
me as their legal adviser. I had no desire to make money out of these cases,
so I told the tenants that I should be satisfied with whatever costs the
tribunal awarded, in case they won, and a fee of £10 on every lease,
irrespective of the result of the case. I also told them that I proposed
to set apart half of the money paid by them for the building of a hospital
or similar institution for the poor. This naturally pleased them all.
Out of about seventy cases only
one was lost. So the fees amounted to a fairly big figure. But Indian
Opinion was there with its persistent claim and devoured, so far as
I can recollect, a sum of £1600. I had worked hard for these cases.
The clients always surrounded me. Most of them were originally indentured
labourers from South India. For the redress of their peculiar grievances
they had formed an association of their own, separate from that of the
free Indian merchants and traders. Some of them were open-hearted, liberal
men and had high character. Their leaders were Sjt. Jairamsing, the president,
and Sjt. Badri, who was as good as the president. Both of them are now
no more. They were exceedingly helpful to me. Sjt. Badri came in very close
contact with me, and took a prominent part in Satyagraha. Through these
and other friends I came in intimate contact with numerous settlers from
North and South India. I became more their brother than a mere legal adviser,
and shared in all their private and public sorrows and hardships.
It may be of some interest to
know how the Indians used to name me. Abdulla Sheth refused to address
me as Gandhi. None, fortunately, ever insulted me by calling or regarding
me as 'saheb'. Abdulla Sheth hit upon a fine appellation--'bhai', i.e.,
brother. Others followed him and continued to address me as 'bhai' until
the moment I left South Africa. There was a sweet flavour about the name
when it was used by the ex-indentured Indians.