30. TOWARDS SELF-RESTRAINT
I have described in the
last chapter how Kasturbai's illness was instrumental in bringing about
some changes in my diet. At a later stage more changes were introduced
for the sake of supporting brahmacharya.
The first of these was the giving
up of milk. It was from Raychandbhai that I first leant that milk stimulated
animal passion. Books on vegetarianism strengthened the idea, but so long
as I had not taken the brahmacharya vow I could not make up my mind
to forego milk. I had long realized that milk was not necessary for supporting
the body, but it was not easy to give it up. While the necessity for avoiding
milk in the interests of self-restraint was growing upon me, I happened
to come across some literature from Calcutta, describing the tortures to
which cows and buffaloes were subjected by their keepers. This had a wonderful
effect on me. I discussed it with Mr. Kallenbach.
Though I have introduced Mr
Kallenbach to the readers of the history of Satyagraha in South Africa,
and referred to him in a previous chapter, I think it necessary to say
something more about him here. We met quite by accident. He was a friend
of Mr. Khan's, and as the latter had discovered deep down in him a vein
of other-worldliness, he introduced him to me.
When I came to know him, I was
startled at his love of luxury and extravagance. But at our very first
meeting, he asked searching questions concerning matters of religion. We
incidentally talked of Gautama Buddha's renunciation. Our acquaintance
soon ripened into very close friendship, so much so that we thought alike,
and he was convinced that he must carry out in his life the changes I was
making in mine.
At that time he was single,
and was expending Rs. 1,200 monthly on himself, over and above house rent.
Now he reduced himself to such simplicity that his expenses came to Rs.
120 per month. After the breaking up of my household and my first release
from jail, we bagan to live together. It was a fairly hard life that we
It was during this time that
we had the discussion about milk. Mr. Kallenbach said, 'We constantly talk
about the harmful effects of milk. Why then do not we give it up? It is
certainly not necessary.' I was agreeably surprised at the suggestion,
which I warmly welcomed, and both of us pledged ourselves to abjure milk
there and then. This was at Tolstoy Farm in the year 1912.
But this denial was not enough
to satisfy me. Soon after this I decided to live on a pure fruit diet,
and that too composed of the cheapest fruit possible. Our ambition was
to live the life of the poorest people.
The fruit diet turned out to
be very convenient also. Cooking was practically done away with. Raw groundnuts,
bananas, dates, lemons, and olive oil composed our usual diet.
I must here utter a warning
for the aspirants of brahmacharya. Though I have made out an intimate
connection between diet and brahmacharya, it is certain that mind
is the principal thing. A mind consciously unclean cannot be cleansed by
fasting. Modifications in diet have no effect on it. The concupiscence
of the mind cannot be rooted out except by intense self-examination, surrender
to God and, lastly, grace. But there is an intimate connection between
the mind and the body, and the carnal mind always lusts for delicacies
and luxuries. To obviate this tendency, dietetic restrictions and fasting
would appear to be necessary. The carnal mind, instead of controlling the
senses, becomes their slave, and therefore the body always needs clean
non-stimulating foods and periodical fasting.
Those who make light of dietetic
restrictions and fasting are as much in error as those who stake their
all on them. My experience teaches me that for those whose minds are working
towards self-restraint, dietetic restriction and fasting are very helpful.
In fact without their help concupiscence cannot be completely rooted out
of the mind.