7. KUMBHA MELA
I next went to Rangoon to meet
Dr. Mehta, and on my way I halted at Calcutta. I was the guest of the late
Babu Bhupendranath Basu. Bengali hospitality reached its climax here. In
those days I was a strict fruitarian, so all the fruits and nuts available
in Calcutta were ordered for me. The ladies of the house kept awake all
night skinning [=peeling] various nuts. Every possible care was taken in
dressing fresh fruit in the Indian style. Numerous delicacies were prepared
for my companions, amongst whom was my son Ramdas. Much as I could appreciate
this affectionate hospitality, I could not bear the thought of a whole
household being occupied in entertaining two or three guests. But as yet
I saw no escape from such embarrassing attentions.
On the boat going to Rangoon
I was a deck passenger. If excess of attention embarrassed us in Sjt. Basu's
house, grossest inattention, even to the elementary comforts of deck passengers,
was our lot on the boat. What was an apology for a bath room was unbearably
dirty, the latrines were stinking sinks. To use the latrine one had to
wade through urine and excreta or jump over them.
This was more than flesh and
blood could bear. I approached the Chief Officer without avail. If anything
was lacking to complete the picture of stink and filth, the passengers
furnished it by their thoughtless habits. They spat where they sat, dirtied
the surroundings with the leavings of their food, tobacco, and betel leaves.
There was no end to the noise, and everyone tried to monopolize as much
room as possible. Their luggage took up more room than they. We had thus
two days of the severest trial.
On reaching Rangoon I wrote
to the Agent of the Steamship Company, acquainting him with all the facts.
Thanks to this letter and to Dr. Mehta's efforts in the matter, the return
journey, though on deck, was less unbearable.
In Rangoon my fruitarian diet
was again a source of additional trouble to the host. But since Dr. Mehta's
home was as good as my own, I could control somewhat the lavishness of
the menu. However, as I had not set any limit to the number of articles
I might eat, the palate and the eyes refused to put an effective check
on the supply of varieties ordered. There were no regular hours for meals.
Personally I preferred having the last meal before nightfall. Nevertheless
as a rule it could not be had before eight or nine.
This year--1915--was the year
of the Kumbha fair, which is held at Hardvar once every 12 years. I was
by no means eager to attend the fair, but I was anxious to meet Mahatma
Munshiramji, who was in his Gurukul. Gokhale's society had sent a big volunteer
corps for service at the Kumbha. Pandit Hridayanath Kunzru was at the head,
and the late Dr. Dev was the medical officer. I was invited to send the
Phoenix party to assist them, and so Maganlal Gandhi had already preceded
me. On my return from Rangoon, I joined the band.
The journey from Calcutta
to Hardvar was particularly trying. Sometimes the compartments had no lights.
From Saharanpur we were huddled into carriages for goods or cattle. These
had no roofs, and what with the blazing midday sun overhead and the scorching
iron floor beneath, we were all but roasted. The pangs of thirst caused
by even such a journey as this, could not persuade orthodox Hindus to take
water, if it was 'Musalmani'. They waited until they could get the 'Hindu'
water. These very Hindus, let it be noted, do not so much as hesitate or
inquire when during illness the doctor administers them wine or prescribes
beef tea, or a Musalman or Christian compounder gives them water.
Our stay in Shantiniketan had
taught us that the scavenger's work would be our special function in India.
Now for the volunteers in Hardvar, tents had been pitched in a dharmashala,
and Dr. Dev had dug some pits to be used as latrines. He had had to depend
on paid scavengers for looking after these. Here was work for the Phoenix
party. We offered to cover up the excreta with earth and to see to their
disposal, and Dr. Dev gladly accepted our offer. The offer was naturally
made by me, but it was Maganlal Gandhi who had to execute it. My business
was mostly to keep sitting in the tent giving darshan, and holding
religious and other discussion with numerous pilgrims who called on me.
This left me not a minute which I could call my own. I was followed even
to the bathing ghat by these darshan-seekers, nor did they
leave me alone whilst I was having my meals. Thus it was in Hardvar that
I realized what a deep impression my humble services in South Africa had
made throughout the whole of India.
But this was no enviable position
to be in. I felt as though I was between the devil and the deep sea. Where
no one recognized me, I had to put up with the hardships that fall to the
lot of the millions in this land, e.g., in railway travelling. Where
I was surrounded by people who had heard of me, I was the victim of their
craze for darshan. Which of the two conditions was more pitiable,
I have often been at a loss to determine. This at least I know, that the
blind love has often made me angry, and more often sore at heart. Whereas
travelling, though often trying, has been uplifting and has hardly ever
roused me to anger.
I was in those days strong
enough to roam about a lot, and was fortunately not so known as not to
be able to go in the streets without creating much fuss. During these roamings
I came to observe more of the pilgrims' absent-mindedness, hypocrisy, and
slovenliness, than of their piety. The swarm of sadhus who had descended
there seemed to have been born to enjoy the good things of life.
Here I saw a cow with five fee!
I was astonished, but knowing men soon disillusioned me. The poor five-footed
cow was a sacrifice to the greed of the wicked. I learnt that the fifth
foot was nothing else but a foot cut off from a live calf and grafted upon
the shoulder of the cow! The result of this double cruelty was exploited
to fleece the ignorant of their money. There was no Hindu but would be
attracted by a five-footed cow, and no Hindu but would lavish his charity
on such a miraculous cow.
The day of the fair was now
upon us. It proved a red letter day for me. I had not gone to Hardvar with
the sentiments of a pilgrim. I have never thought of frequenting places
of pilgrimage in search of piety. But the seventeen lakhs of men that were
reported to be there could not all be hypocrites or mere sight-seers. I
had no doubt that countless people amongst them had gone there to earn
merit and for self-purification. It is difficult, if not impossible, to
say to what extent this kind of faith uplifts the soul.
I therefore passed the whole
night immersed in deep thought. There were those pious souls, in the midst
of the hypocrisy that surrounded them. They would be free of guilt before
their Maker. If the visit to Hardvar was in itself a sin, I must publicly
protest against it, and leave Hardvar on the day of Kumbha. If the pilgrimage
to Hardvar and to the Kumbha fair was not sinful, I must impose some act
of self-denial on myself in atonement for the iniquity prevailing there,
and purify myself. This was quite natural for me. My life is based on disciplinary
resolutions. I thought of the unnecessary trouble I had caused to my hosts
at Calcutta and Rangoon, who had so lavishly entertained me. I therefore
decided to limit the articles of my daily diet, and to have my final meal
before sunset. I was convinced that if I did not impose these restrictions
on myself, I should put my future hosts to considerable inconvenience,
and should engage them in serving me rather than engage myself in service.
So I pledged myself never whilst in India to take more than five articles
in twenty-four hours, and never to eat after dark. I gave the fullest thought
to the difficulties I might have to face. But I wanted to leave no loophole.
I rehearsed to myself what would happen during an illness, if I counted
medicine among the five articles, and made no exception in favour of special
articles of diet. I finally decided that there should be no exception on
any account whatsoever.
I have been under these
vows for thirteen years now. They have subjected me to a severe test, but
I am able to testify that they have also served as my shield. I am of opinion
that they have added a few years to my life and saved me from many an illness.