31. THAT MEMORABLE WEEK!—I
After a short tour in
South India I reached Bombay, I think on the 4th April, having received
a wire from Sjt. Shankarlal Banker asking me to be present there for the
6th of April celebrations.
But in the meanwhile Delhi had
already observed the hartal on the 30th March. The word of the late
Swami Shraddhanandji and Hakim Ajmal Khan Saheb was law there. The wire
about the postponement of the hartal till the 6th of April had reached
there too late. Delhi had never witnessed a hartal like that before.
Hindus and Musalmans seemed united like one man. Swami Shraddhanandji was
invited to deliver a speech in the Jumma Masjid, which he did. All this
was more than the authorities could bear. The police checked the hartal
procession as it was proceeding towards the railway station, and opened
fire, causing a number of casualties, and the reign of repression commenced
in Delhi. Shraddhanandji urgently summoned me to Delhi. I wired back, saying
I would start for Delhi immediately after the 6th of April celebrations
were over in Bombay.
The story of happenings in Delhi
was repeated with variations in Lahore and Amritsar. From Amritsar Drs.
Satyapal and Kitchlu had sent me a pressing invitation to go there. I was
altogether unacquainted with them at that time, but I communicated to them
my intention to visit Amritsar after Delhi.
On the morning of the 6th, the
citizens of Bombay flocked to the Chowpati for a bath in the sea, after
which they moved on in a procession to Thakurdvar. The procession included
a fair sprinkling of women and children, while the Musalmans joined it
in large numbers. From Thakurdvar some of us who were in the procession
were taken by the Musalman friends to a mosque near by, where Mrs. Naidu
and myself were persuaded to deliver speeches. Sjt. Vithaldas Jerajani
proposed that we should then and there administer the Swadeshi and Hindu-Muslim
unity pledges to the people, but I resisted the proposal on the ground
that pledges should not be administered or taken in precipitate hurry,
and that we should be satisfied with what was already being done by the
people. A pledge once taken, I argued, must not be broken afterwards; therefore
it was necessary that the implications of the Swadeshi pledge should be
clearly understood, and the grave responsibility entailed by the pledge
regarding Hindu-Muslim unity fully realized by all concerned. In the end
I suggested that those who wanted to take the pledges should again assemble
on the following morning for the purpose.
Needless to say the hartal
in Bombay was a complete success. Full preparation had been made for starting
civil disobedience. Two or three things had been discussed in this connection.
It was decided that civil disobedience might be offered in respect of such
laws only as easily lent themselves to being disobeyed by the masses. The
salt tax was extremely unpopular, and a powerful movement had been for
some time past going on to secure its repeal. I therefore suggested that
the people might prepare salt from sea-water in their houses in disregard
of the salt laws. My other suggestion was about the sale of proscribed
literature. Two of my books, viz., Hind Swaraj and Sarvodaya
(Gujarati adaptation of Ruskin's Unto This Last), which had been
already proscribed, came in handy for this purpose. To print and sell them
openly seemed to be the easiest way of offering civil disobedience. A sufficient
number of copies of the books was therefore printed, and it was arranged
to sell them at the end of the monster meeting that was to be held that
evening after the breaking of the fast.
On the evening of the 6th, an
army of volunteers issued forth accordingly with this prohibited literature,
to sell it among the people. Both Shrimati Sarojini Devi and I went out
in cars. All the copies were soon sold out. The proceeds of the sale were
to be utilized for furthering the civil disobedience campaign. Both these
books were priced at four annas per copy, but I hardly remember anybody
having purchased them from me at their face value merely. Quite a large
number of people simply poured out all the cash that was in their pockets
to purchase their copy. Five and ten rupee notes just flew out to cover
the price of a single copy, while in one case I remember having sold a
copy for fifty rupees! It was duly explained to the people that they were
liable to be arrested an imprisoned for purchasing the proscribed literature.
But for the moment they had shed all fear of jail-going.
It was subsequently learnt that
the Government had conveniently taken the view that the books that had
been proscribed by it had not in fact been sold, and that what we had sold
was not held as coming under the definition of proscribed literature. The
reprint was held by the Government to be a new edition of the books that
had been proscribed, and to sell them did not constitute an offence under
the law. This news caused general disappointment.
The next morning another meeting
was held for the administration of the pledges with regard to Swadeshi
and Hindu-Muslim unity. Vithaldas Jerajani for the first time realized
that all is not gold that glitters. Only a handful of persons came. I distinctly
remember some of the sisters who were present on that occasion. The men
who attended were also very few. I had already drafted the pledge and brought
it with me. I thoroughly explained its meaning to those present before
I administered it to them. The paucity of the attendance neither pained
nor surprised me, for I have noticed this characteristic difference in
the popular attitude--partiality for exciting work, dislike for quiet constructive
effort. The difference has persisted to this day.
But I shall have to devote to
this subject a chapter by itself. To return to the story. On the night
of the 7th I started for Delhi and Amritsar. On reaching Mathura on the
8th, I first heard rumours about my probable arrest. At the next stoppage
after Mathura, Acharya Gidvani came to meet me, and gave me definite news
that I was to be arrested, and offered his services to me if I should need
them. I thanked him for the offer, assuring him that I would not fail to
avail myself of it, if and when I felt it necessary.
Before the train had reached
Palwal railway station, I was served with a written order to the effect
that I was prohibited from entering the boundary of the Punjab, as my presence
there was likely to result in a disturbance of the peace. I was asked by
the police to get down from the train. I refused to do so, saying, 'I want
to go to the Punjab in response to a pressing invitation, not to foment
unrest, but to allay it. I am therefore sorry that it is not possible for
me to comply with this order.'
At last the train reached Palwal.
Mahadev was with me. I asked him to proceed to Delhi to convey to Swami
Sharddhanandji the news about what had happened and to ask the people to
remain calm. He was to explain why I had decided to disobey the order served
upon me and suffer the penalty for disobeying it, and also why it would
spell victory for our side if we could maintain perfect peace in spite
of any punishment that might be inflicted upon me.
At Palwal railway station I
was taken out of the train and put under police custody. A train from Delhi
came in a short time. I was made to enter a third class carriage, the police
party accompanying. On reaching Mathura, I was taken to the police barracks,
but no police official could tell me as to what they proposed to do with
me or where I was to be taken next. Early at 4 o'clock the next morning
I was awoken and put in a goods train that was going towards Bombay. At
noon I was again made to get down at Sawai Madhopur. Mr. Bowring, Inspector
of Police, who arrived by the mail train for Lahore, now took charge of
me. I was put in a first class compartment with him. And from an ordinary
prisoner I became a 'gentleman' prisoner. The officer commenced a long
panegyric of Sir Michael O'Dwyer. Sir Michael had nothing against me personally,
he went on, only he apprehended a disturbance of the peace if I entered
the Punjab and so on. In the end he requested me to return to Bombay of
my own accord and agree not to cross the frontier of the Punjab. I replied
that I could not possibly comply with the order, and that I was not prepared
of my own accord to go back. Whereupon the officer, seeing no other course,
told me that he would have to enforce the law against me. 'But what do
you want to do with me?' I asked him. He replied that he himself did not
know but was awaiting further orders. 'For the present, I am taking you
We reached Surat. Here I was
made over to the charge of another police officer. 'You are now free,'
the officer told me when we had reached Bombay. 'It would however be better,'
he added,'if you get down near the Marine Lines, where I shall get the
train stopped for you. At Colaba there is likely to be a big crowd.' I
told him that I would be glad to follow his wish. He was pleased, and thanked
me for it. Accordingly I alighted at the Marine Lines. The carriage of
a friend just happened to be passing by. It took me and left me at Revashankar
Jhaveri's place. The friend told me that the news of my arrest had incensed
the people and roused them to a pitch of mad frenzy. 'An outbreak is apprehended
every minute near Pydhuni, the magistrate and the police have already arrived
there,' he added.
Scarcely had I reached my destination,
when Umar Sobani and Anasuyabehn arrived and asked me to motor to Pydhuni
at once. 'The people have become impatient, and are very much excited,'
they said, 'we cannot pacify them. Your presence alone can do it.'
I got into the car. Near Pydhuni
I saw that a huge crowd had gathered. On seeing me, the people went mad
with joy. A procession was immediately formed, and the sky was rent with
the shouts of Vande mataram and Allaho akbar. At Pydhuni
we sighted a body of mounted police. Brickbats were raining down from above.
I besought the crowd to be calm, but it seemed as we should not be able
to escape the shower of brickbats. As the procession issued out of Abdur
Rahman Street and was about to proceed towards the Crawford Market, it
suddenly found itself confronted by a body of the mounted police, who had
arrived there to prevent it from proceeding further in the direction of
the Fort. The crowd was densely packed. It had almost broken through the
police cordon. There was hardly any chance of my voice being heard in that
vast concourse. Just then the officer in charge of the mounted police gave
the order to disperse the crowd, and at once the mounted party charged
upon the crowd, brandishing their lances as they went. For a moment I felt
that I would be hurt. But my apprehension was groundless, the lances just
grazed the car as the lancers swiftly passed by. The ranks of the people
were soon broken, and they were thrown into utter confusion, which was
soon converted into a rout. Some got trampled under foot, others were badly
mauled and crushed. In that seething mass of humanity there was hardly
any room for the horses to pass, nor was there any exit by which the people
could disperse. So the lancers blindly cut their way through the crowd.
I hardly imagine they could see what they were doing. The whole thing presented
a most dreadful spectacle. The horsemen and the people were mixed together
in mad confusion.
Thus the crowed was dispersed
and its progress checked. Our motor was allowed to proceed. I had it stopped
before the Commissioner's office, and got down to complain to him about
the conduct of the police.