=ROBERT CLIVE (1725-1774): "The Battle of Plassey: Robert Clive to the East India Company," from Clive's memoirs: [site]. More Clive lettes: [site]. A letter by one of his soldiers: "Excerpts from a Sergeant's Diary recounting Robert Clive's capture of Arcot, September-October 1751": [site]. Macaulay's long essay about him: [on this site]

=HIR RANJHA by Waris Shah (c.1719-1790), trans. by Charles Frederick Usborne (1874-1919): in PDF form: [site]

=MAHANIRVANA TANTRA (1700s), trans. by "Arthur Avalon" (Sir John Woodroffe), 1913: [site]

=Mirza Muhammad Hasan (d.1763), Mir'at-i Ahmadi (Mirror of Ahmad) (1761), a history of Ahmadabad, Gujarat: [site] (Packard)

=Budh Singh Khatri (fl. c.1764/5), Risalah-i Nanak Shah (Treatise on Nanak Shah) (1783), trans. and included in a larger work by James Browne [a history of Sikhism]: [site] (Packard)

=Ghulam Husain Khan, Siyar ul-mutakhirin (Behavior of the Recent Ones) (1781), trans. by "Nota-Manus" [on North Indian and Bengali political history after Aurangzeb's death]: [site] (Packard)

='Abd ul-Karim Kashmiri (d.1784), Biyan-i vaqi' (Account of Events) (1784), a memoir of the author's travels and observations, including Nadir Shah's invasion: [site] (Packard)

=Murtaza Husain 'Usmani Bilgrami (d.1795), Hadiqat ul-aqalim (1778-82), a geographical work, included in Elliot and Dowson: [site] (Packard)

=Abu Talib Khan (1752/3-1805/6), Tafzih ul-ghafilin (Disgrace of the Heedless) (1796/7), a history of Avadh under Asif ud-Daulah: [site] (Packard)

=Ananda Ranga Pillai (1709-61), chief interpreter to Governor Dupleix of Pondicherry, kept an extensive private diary from 1736 until his death; selections from it are presented here: [on this site]


="The Second Anniversary Discourse" (1785): [site]
="The Third Anniversary Discourse" (1786): [site]
="The Fourth Anniversary Discourse" (1787): [site]
=His translation of Kalidasa's "Shakuntala" (1789): [on this site]
="The Origin and Families of Nations" (1792): [site]
="On Asiatick History, Civil and Natural" (1793): [site]
=Henry Morse Stephens, "Sir William Jones": [site]
=L. M. Findlay, "'[T]hat Liberty of Writing': Incontinent Ordinance in 'Oriental' Jones": [site]

=Tipu Sultan, Select Letters of Tippoo Sultan to Various Public Functionaries, selected and trans. by William Kirkpatrick (1811): [site] (Packard)

=Dean Mahomed (1759-1851), an Indian Muslim who settled in England, and the author of a number of English-language letters. Michael Fisher, trans. The Travels of Dean Mahomed: An Eighteenth-Century Journey Through India (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997): [site]

=COLONIAL DOCUMENTS by British administrators, from the Internet Sourcebook: [site]

=EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)

="Ninth Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of India," June 25, 1783: [site]
="Eleventh Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of India," Nov. 18, 1783: [site]
="On Mr. Fox's East India Bill," a speech in the House of Commons, Dec. 1, 1783: [site]
="On the Nabob of Arcot's Debts," a speech in the House of Commons, Feb. 28, 1785: [site]
="Articles of Charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors against Warren Hastings, Esq., Late Governor General of Bengal," a document presented to the House of Commons, in April-May, 1786; the Hastings trial, with speeches and related material, continues at intervals through 1794, and occupies in Burke's Collected Works the latter part of Vol. 8 [site], and the whole of Vol. 9 [site], Vol. 10 [site], Vol. 11 [site], and Vol. 12 [site]

==Seir ul-Mutaqherin (c.1782) by Seid Gholam Hussein Khan, trans. by "Nota-manus" (1786): [site] (Packard)

=Ghulam Husain, Riyaz us-Salatin (Garden of the Sultans) (1787/8), a history of Bengal: [site] (Packard) 

=John Borthwick Gilchrist, The General East India Guide... (1825) [on this site]; also many more works of his: [site]

=RAJA RAM MOHUN ROY (1772-1833)

="A Defense of Hindu Theism" (1817): [on this site]
="On Concremation [Sati]; A Second Conference between an Advocate and an Opponent of That Practice" (1820): [on this site
="Abstract of the Arguments Regarding the Burning of Widows, Considered as a Religious Rite" (1830) [on this site]
="Remarks on Settlement in India by Europeans" (1832): [on this site]
="Theology of the Hindus, as Taught by Ram Mohun Roy" (1818): [site]
=Ram Mohun Roy and the Brahmo Samaj, in the eyes of the Imperial Gazetteer (1908-31): [site]

=Navab Mustajab Khan (d.1833), Gulistan-e rahmat (Garden of Mercy) (1792/3), a biography of the author's father, an Afghan chieftain in Bareilly (included in Elliot and Dowson): [site] (Packard)

=Mir Husain 'Ali Kirmani, Nishan-i haidari (Seal of Haidar) (1802), a history of Haidar 'Ali and his son Tipu Sultan: [site] (Packard)

=Bagh o bahar (1804) by Mir Amman Dihlavi, translated and annotated by Duncan Forbes, 1857; with much background material: [on this site]

=Robert Kerr, ed. GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS, ARRANGED IN SYSTEMATIC ORDER: Forming a Complete History of the Origin and Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce, by Sea and Land, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time (1811): [on this site]

=The General East India Guide (1825), by John Borthwick Gilchrist (updating Williamson 1810): [on this site]

=Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, Observations on the Mussulmauns of India, Descriptive of their Manners, Customs, Habits, and Religious Opinions, made during a Twelve Years' Residence in their Immediate Society (1832). Edited by W. Crooke (1917): [on this site]

=Campaign of the Indus: in a Series of Letters from an Officer of the Bombay Division (1838-40), by A. H. Holdsworth, Esq. (1840): [on this site]

=Lives of the Moghul Emperors, by Thomas Bacon and Meadows Taylor (London, 1840): [site]

=A Popular Account of the Manners and Customs of India (1842-45) by Rev. Charles Acland: [site]

=MACAULAY (1800-1859) -- a study of his thoughts and writings about India: [on this site]

=William Sleeman (1788-1856), Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official (1844): [site]

=William Sleeman (1788-1856), A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude (1858), vols. 1 and 2: [site]; an excerpt, about sexual and dynastic politics in Avadh in the 1830's: [on this site]

= James Mill and H. H. Wilson, The History of British India (1848), vol 2: [site]

="Educational Dispatch of 1854," by the British East India Company: [site]


==Adye, John, Recollections of a Military Life (1895): [site]
==American magazines' contemporary coverage of the rebellion: [on this site]

==Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, The Causes of the Indian Revolt (1859), issued in English in 1873: [on this site]; along with The History of the Bijnor Rebellion (1858) [on this site]
==Cholmeley, R. E., John Nicholson: The Lion of the Punjab (1908): [site]
==Cooper, Frederic Henry, The Handbook for Delhi (1865): [site]

==Fenn, George Manville, Begumbagh (1879): [site]; a historical novel about the period
==Fraser, W. A., Caste (1922): [site]; a historical novel about the period
==Frontline special issue: "The Call of 1857" (June 16-29, 2007): [site]
==Greathed, Elisa, "An account of the Opening of the Indian Mutiny at Meerut, 1857": [site]
==Griffiths, Charles John, A Narrative of the Siege of Delhi with an Account of the Mutiny at Ferozepore in 1857 (1910): [site]
==Gubbins, Martin Richard, An Account of the Mutinies in Oudh, and of the Siege of the Lucknow Residency (1858): [site]

==Habib, Irfan, ed., a special issue on the topic: Social Scientist 26, 296-99 (Jan.-Apr. 1998): [site]
==Keene, Henry George, Fifty-seven: Some Account of the Administration of Indian Districts during the Revolt of the Bengal Army (1883): [site]
==Ludlow, J. M. F., British India, Its Races and Its History Considered with Reference to the Mutinies of 1857 (1858): [site]
==Martin, Robert Montgomery, The Indian empire... with a full account of the mutiny of the Bengal army (1858-61): [vol. 1]; [vol. 2] [vol. 3] (see esp. vol. 3, pp. 143ff.)
==Muir, Sir William, Records of the Intelligence Department of the Government of the North-west Provinces of India during the Mutiny of 1857, vol. 1 (1902): [site]

==Roberts, Frederick Sleigh, Forty-one Years in India: From Subaltern to Commander-In-Chief (1898): [site]
==Robertson, H. Dundas, District Duties During the Revolt in the North-west Provinces of India in 1857: With Remarks on Subsequent Investigations (1859): [site]
==Walsh, John, A Memorial of the Futtegurh Mission and her Martyred Missionaries: with some Remarks on the Mutiny in India (1858): [site]

=Asar us-Sanadid (2nd ed., 1854): [site]; his chronicle of the monuments of Delhi, after brief prefatory material in translation, the text is in Urdu
=Ghalib's (critical, and rejected) preface composed for Sir Sayyid's edition of the A'in-e Akbari (1855-56): [on this site]
=The Causes of the Indian Revolt (1859), by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, issued in English in 1873: a study site with background material and commentary by FWP: [on this site]; NOTE: some users of IE may have trouble, so here's a *very plain version*

=History of the Bijnor Rebellion (1858): [on this site]
="Speech of Sir Syed Ahmed at Lucknow" (September 1887): [on this site]; he passionately urges Muslims not to join the newly-founded Indian National Congress
="Speech of Sir Syed Ahmed at Meerut" (March 1888): [on this site]; another emotionally anti-Congress speech
="Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress" by Badruddin Tyabji (Madras, 1887): [on this site]; a different political vision for Indian Muslims, from Sir Sayyid's friend and opponent
=An exchange of letters between Sir Sayyid and Badruddin Tyabji about the Congress: [on this site]
=The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C.S.L., by George Farquhar Graham (1885): [site]
="Open Letters to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan," by Lala Lajpat Rai (1888): [on this site]; these point out the suddenness and magnitude of the change in Sir Sayyid's political views
="Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress" by Rahimatulla M. Sayani (Calcutta, 1896): [on this site]; Sayani vigorously takes issue with anti-Congress views like Sir Sayyid's
=Sir Abdul Qadir, 'Sir Syed Ahmad Khan', in Famous Urdu Poets and Writers (Lahore, 1947): [on this site]

=Daniel W. Brown,"Islamic Modernism in South Asia--a Reassessment": [site]
=Muzaffar Iqbal, "Syed Ahmad Khan: Family and Social Milieu" [site]
=M. M. Sharif, ed., A History of Muslim Philosophy (published by the Pakistan Philosophical Congress,1961): chapters 80 (Abdul Hamid) and 81 (B. A. Dar) are about Sir Sayyid: [site]
=David Lelyveld, "Growing up Sharif," the first part of Chapter 2 from Aligarh's First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978): [on this site]
="Sir Syed Opposed Equal Rights for Women: Lelyveld", Times of India, Jan. 20, 2015: [site]
=Shamsur Rahman Faruqi, "From Antiquary to Social Revolutionary: Syed Ahmad Khan and the Colonial Experience" (2006): [on this site]

="Going Beyond the Blame Game: Crusaders for Enhancing Education among Muslims; A Profile of Ahmed Rashid Shervani," by Kristina Bellach and Madhu Purnima Kishwar, Manushi 154: [site] (about two modern heirs of Sir Sayyid)
"Syed Ahmad and His Two Books Called 'Asar-al-Sanadid'," by C. M. Naim, in Modern Asian Studies (@) 45,3 (2010), pp. 669-708: [on Naim's site]
="A Musafir To London," Outlook India, Oct. 17, 2011: [site]

=Mountstuart Elphinstone, The History of India: The Hindú and Mahometan Periods (1841): [site]

="Nil Darpan, or, the Indigo-Planting Mirror, A Drama, Translated from the Bengali by A Native" (1861): [site]

=John Stuart Mill, "Of the Government of Dependencies by a Free State" (1862): [on this site]

=Ja'far Sharif, Qanoon-e-Islam: Or the Customs of the Musalmans of India, trans. G. A. Herklots, 1863: [site]

=CENSUS of 1871-2, a searchable database about this document: [site]

=Swami Dayanand Saraswati (1825-1883), The Light of the Truth (Satyartha Prakash) and other works by and about him: [site]

=Dastan-e Amir Hamzah (1871) by Abdullah Bilgrami, abridged and translated by FWP from the Urdu, with much background material: [on this site]

=Owen, Sidney James, India on the Eve of British Conquest: A Historical Sketch (1872): [site]

=Lear, Edward, "The Cummerbund: an Indian Poem" (1874): [on this site]

=Digital Colonial Documents, a project by Latrobe University: [site]

=AMERICAN JOURNALISM IN THE 19th CENTURY: Selected magazine articles about South Asia: [on this site] (includes a list of relevant books as well)

=Toru Dutt and her book of English poetry (1876): a contemporary article from The Century: [site]; some representative poems: [site]; her Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan (1885): [site]

=ELLIOT and DOWSON, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians; The Muhammadan Period (1876-77): [site] (Packard)

=Sir Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia (1879), a long poem about the Buddha: [site]

=Bankim Chandra Chatterji (1838-1894), The Poison Tree: a Tale of Hindu Life in Bengal, trans. by Miriam S. Knight (1884): [site]

=Abu Talib, A History of Asaf ud-Daulah, Nawab-Vizier of Oudh (Tafzih ul-Ghafilin), trans. by W. Hoey (1885): [site] (Packard)

=Amrita Lal Roy, "English Rule in India," in The North American Review (New York), 1886: [site]

=Hobson-Jobson (1886), the great Anglo-Indian dictionary of Asian words used in British Indian English [site]

=The Life of William Carey (1761-1834), by George Smith (1887): [on this site]

=Badruddin Tyabji, "Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress" (Madras, 1887): [on this site]

=Rev. John F. Hurst, "A Native Publishing House in India,"  in Harper's New Monthly Magazine 75 (June-Nov 1887), pp. 352-356; Cornell Univ. Library: [site] (About the famous Naval Kishor Press.)

=Lala Lajpat Rai, "Open Letters to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan" (1888): [on this site]

=Swami Abhedananda (1866-1939), a disciple of Ramakrishna's, Vedanta Philosophy: Five Lectures on Reincarnation: [site]

=T. Ramakrishna, Tales of Ind and Other Poems (1896): [site]

=Rahimatulla M. Sayani, "Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress" (Calcutta, 1896): [on this site]

=Rudyard Kipling, Kim (1901), a free public book in NetLibrary: [site]; and many more of his works, from Project Gutenberg: [site]


=An overview of Iqbal's life from Wikipedia: [site]
=A timeline of Iqbal's life: [on this site]
="How to Read Iqbal," by S. R. Faruqi (2005): [site]
="Islam as an Ethical and Political Ideal" (1908), Iqbal's first speech in English: [on this site]
=The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908): [site]
=On the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930), London: Oxford University Press, 1934; with annotations by a later online editor: [site]
="Presidential Address to the All-India Muslim League, Allahabad, Dec. 1930": [on this site]
=Two letters to Jinnah, 1937: [on this site]
=A translation of 'Zauq o shauq' by S. R. Faruqi: [on this site]

=TRANSLATIONS of his main Persian and Urdu works: [site]; scroll down to the bottom of the home page, then click on "The Poet-Philosopher," then on "Poetical Works." Translations for all his main Persian and Urdu works are provided, but they aren't all of the same quality. The ones I recommend are as follows:
    =Asrar-i-Khudi (The Secrets of the Self) (1915), trans. from the Persian by R. A. Nicholson (1920); another location: [site]
   =Rumuz-i-Bekhudi (The Mysteries of Selflessness) (1918), trans. from the Persian with intro. and notes by A. J. Arberry
    =Zubur-i-Ajam (Persian Psalms) (1927), Parts I and II, trans. from the Persian by A. J. Arberry
    =Javid-Nama (1932), trans. from the Persian with intro. and notes by A. J. Arberry
    ="What Should Then be Done, O People of the East" (Pas chih bayad kard ay aqwam-e sharq) (1936), trans. from the Persian by B. A. Dar

=Another portal: [site]; it contains links to the above, and much additional material
="Renaissance in Indo-Pakistan: Iqbal," by Khalifa Abdul Hakim, from A History of Muslim Philosophy, ed. by M. M. Sharif (Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1961), Book VIII, Chapter 82 (pdf format): [site]
=Rafiq Kathwari's new translations of some of Iqbal's poems: [site]
=Ayesha Jalal, "Religion as Difference, Religion as Faith: Paradoxes of Muslim Identity"; the article has a good deal to say about Iqbal: [site]
="The Life of the Poet-Philosopher," by Hafeez Malik and Lynda Malik, from Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of Pakistan (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971): [on this site]
="Two Taranahs" (1904, 1910), a study site by FWP: [on this site]

="Iqbal: some of his best Urdu poems," a study site by FWP: [on this site]
=More Iqbal material in Urdu, really a sort of library on him: [site]

=An elaborately introduced and illustrated recitation of "Khizr-e rah": [site]
=Nusrat Fatah Ali Khan's performance of "Shikvah," in sections, on YouTube: [one]; [two]; [three]; [four]; [five]; [six]

=TAGORE-- a good set of  materials at Parabaas: [site]
=Another good set of materials at Project Gutenberg: [site]
=GITANJALI, in the poet's own translation, with an introduction by W. B. Yeats: an edited and easily printable version: [on this site]; also [site]; and [site]
=SONGS OF KABIR, translated by Rabindranath Tagore (New York: Macmillan, 1915): [site]; and many other works by Tagore at sacred-texts: [site]
=Poems in translation, a collection of shorter pieces: [site]
="Fruit-gathering," poems in the author's own translation (Macmillan, 1916): [site]
="Bolai," a short story, trans. by Prasanjit Gupta: [site]
="Once There Was a King," a short story: [site]
="Chitra: a Play in One Act," for downloading: [site
="Dialogue Between Karna and Kunti" (1900), a play, trans. by Ketaki K. Dyson: [site]
="The Home and the World," a short story, trans. by Surendranath Tagore: [site]
="Ritual and Reform," a short story, trans. by Prasenjit Gupta: [site]
="A Wife's Letter," a short story, trans. by Prasenjit Gupta: [site]
="Tagore and His India," a talk by distinguished economist Amartya Sen: [site]
="Poet Tagore," woodcut, 1946, by Sudhir Khastgir: [site]
=More works by Tagore, from Project Gutenberg: [site]

="The Official Mahatma Gandhi E-archive": [site]
=His autobiography, The Story of My Experiments With Truth (1925): [on this site]
=Gandhi's books-- a whole set, available online: [site]
=Project Gutenberg books: [site]
=Gandhi's last letter about Hindi/Urdu, just before his assassination: [on this site]
="Bapuji," woodcut, 1946, by Sudhir Khastgir: [site]
=G. R. Rao, An Atheist with Gandhi (1951): [site]
=Salman Rushdie, "Mohandas Gandhi," in Time Magazine, 2000 (for poll on top 100 people of the millennium): [site]

=Ashraf Ali Thanavi (1864-1943), Bihishti Zevar (Heavenly Jewels) (c.1900?): [site]

=Modern India (1904), a travel-guide overview by an American, William Eleroy Curtis: [site]

=Altaf Husain Hali (1837-1914), "Justice for the Silent" (1905), and much other material: [on this site]

=Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949), The Golden Threshold (c.1905); her poetry: [site]; also from Univ. of Virginia: [site]

=Wright, Thomas, The Life of Sir Richard Burton (1906): [site]; with illustrations: [site]

=Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920), "Address to the Indian National Congress, 1907": [site]

=Tolstoy, Lev Nikolayevich, A Letter to a Hindu (1909): [site]

=Banerjea, S. B., Tales of Bengal (1910), intro. by F. H. Skrine: [site]; [site]

=Nizam-ud-din-Ahmad, (Nawab Nizamat Jung Bahadur), Sonnets (1914): [site]

=Sri Aurobindo, "The Doctrine of the Mystics" (1915): [site]

=Annie Besant as Congress President, 1917, "The Case for India": [site]

=Sarojini Naidu, 1917: "Ideals of Islam": [on this site]

=Maulana Mohammed Ali (1878-1931)-- an essay on him by Mushirul Hasan and an excerpt from his autobiography, My Life: A Fragment: [site]; his speech at the Fourth Plenary Session of the Round Table Conference in London, 19th Nov., 1930: [on this site]

=Lala Lajpat Rai, "The Hindu-Muslim Problem" (a series of newspaper articles), 1924: [on this site]

=Premchand (Dhanpat Rai Shrivastav) (1880-1936), "The Shroud" (1935), trans. from Urdu and Hindi by FWP: [on this site]

=A. A. Macdonnell, "Sanskrit Literature," a useful overview article from the Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-31), vol. 2, pp. 206-269: [site]

=G. A. Grierson, "Vernacular Literature," a useful overview article from the Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-31), vol. 2, pp. 414-438: [site]

=Premchand's speech to the new All-India Progressive Writers' Association, Lucknow, 1936: [on this site]


=Columbia's major Ambedkar site (with annotated text of Annihilation of Caste, and much more: [site]
=A timeline of Dr. Ambedkar's life and work: [on this site]
=Some images of Dr. Ambedkar: [Indian Routes]
="Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development" (1916): [on this site]
="What Path to Salvation?" (speech, 1936): [on this site]
="Waiting for a Visa" (fragment of autobiography, c.1935-6): [on this site]
="Ranade, Gandhi, and Jinnah" (speech, 1943): [on this site]
="Pakistan, or, the Partition of India" (Bombay: Thackers, 1945): [on this site]
="Why Was Nagpur Chosen?" (speech, 1956): [on this site]
="The Buddha and his Dhamma" (Bombay: Siddharth College Publications, 1957): [on this site]
=The greatest cache of Ambedkariana, [site]
=Dr. Ambedkar's whole multi-volume COLLECTED WORKS online: [site]; also [site]

=Yogananda Paramahansa (1893-1952), Autobiography of a Yogi (1946): [site]; also [site]

=British Government Statement on Policy in India, 1946: [site]

=Jawaharlal Nehru (1885-1964), "Marxism, Capitalism, and Non-Alignment" (1941): [site]; "Speech on the Granting of Indian Independence, August 14, 1947": [site]

=Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958), "Presidential Address to the Fifty-third Session of the Indian National Congress (1940): [on this site]

=Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), some of his speeches: [on this site]

=Dr. Zakir Husain, "A Day in August, 1947," trans. by C. M. Naim, Outlook India, Aug. 29, 2004: [on this site]

=Shaista Akhtar Bano Suhrawardy: Excerpts about her childhood, from her autobiography From Purdah to Parliament (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998 [1963]): [on this site]

="The Containment and Re-deployment of English India," Romantic Circles Praxis Series, November 2000: a number of relevant articles: [site]


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