A TIMELINE of Indo-Muslim history

Compiled by FWP for classroom use. Some dates are given variously in different sources; I have made the best choices I could, and will be on the lookout to improve things in the future. Among the sources I've used are:

1) the timeline of Muslim history at Princeton [ site ]
2) S. A. A. Rizvi, The Wonder that was India, Part II (New Delhi: Rupa, 1987)
3) Burton Stein, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998)
4) S. M. Ikram, History of Muslim Civilization in India and Pakistan (Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1993). Reprint of 2nd ed., 1966 (1st ed. 1961)
5) Violette Graff, ed., Lucknow: Memories of a City (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997)
6) B. D. and T. R. Metcalf, A Concise History of India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)

== Islam: the early years ==
== Muslims: the arrival in South Asia ==
== Delhi Sultanate ==
== Mughal Empire ==
== Company Bahadur ==
== British Imperial rule ==
== Independence ==

ISLAM-- the early years
613-- the preaching of Islam The Prophet (born c.1571) begins publicly preaching Islam in Mecca, having received his first revelations in 610.
622-- the Hijra The emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Madina; the starting point of the Islamic calendar. 
632-- the Prophet's death The Prophet's death marks the beginning of a period of instability and rapid growth.
632-34-- Abu Bakr as caliph Armies are sent into Mesopotamia and Syria. Abu Bakr dies in 634.
634-44-- 'Umar as caliph Completion of the conquest of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. 'Umar is murdered in 644 by a Persian captive.
644-56-- 'Uthman as caliph Continuation of the conquests in north and east Iran and North Africa. Inter-tribal conflicts within the Islamic state over who will rule. Beginnings of Arab sea-power, directed against Byzantium. 'Uthman is murdered in 656 by Muslims from a different political faction.
656--  'Ali as caliph Kufa, in Iraq, as the seat of government. Civil war between the party (shi'a) of 'Ali and his opponents from among the Quraysh, including 'A'isha.
656-61-- struggles for power Political and military struggle for power between 'Ali and Mu'awiya. 'Ali is murdered in 661 and his son Hasan renounces the caliphate.
661-750-- the Umayyads Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, a kinsman of the caliph 'Uthman, takes power as the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. Damascus becomes the new capital. 
680-- Karbala Husain ibn 'Ali leads the uprising of the 'Alid party in Kufa and is killed at Karbala; his martyrdom makes him a central figure for the Shi'a.
705-15-- al-Walid as caliph Caliphate of al-Walid I. Consolidation and greatest expansion of the empire. 
750-1258-- the 'Abbasids The caliphate of the 'Abbasid dynasty and its successor states endures, with decreasing political authority, until the Mongols destroy their capital of Baghdad in 1258. 
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MUSLIMS-- the arrival in South Asia .
711-12-- conquest of Sind Tariq ibn Ziyad attacks southern Spain, beginning of the conquest of al-Andalus. Destruction of the Gothic army of King Roderick at Wadi Bakka. Conquest of Sind by Muhammad ibn al-Qasim.
713-- Brahmanabad Settlement Brahmanabad settlement assures rights of non-Muslims to be treated as "People of the Book"; conquest of Multan
714-- Muhammad bin Qasim is ordered home The young conquerer of Sind is tortured to death in prison after a regime change in the Caliphate; the rulers of Sind and Multan gradually, after a century or so, attain complete independence.
r. 977-97--Subuktigin rules Ghazni Subuktigin rules Ghazni; annexes territory up to Peshawar, 986-87
r.998-1030-- Mahmud Ghaznavi Mahmud carves out a kingdom in central Afghanistan, raids everybody in sight; at his court is Firdausi (d.1020)
1024-- Lahore Lahore becomes the eastern capital of the Ghaznavids
1025-26-- Somnath Mahmud's raid on Somnath
1039-- Data Ganj Bakhsh arrives; "Kashf ul-Mahjub" Shaikh 'Ali Hujwiri, called Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh, comes to Lahore from Ghazni; he composes Kashf ul-Mahjub (Revelation of the Mystery) there, and remains there until his death in 1072; in his time the Sufi orders have not yet taken shape
1048-- Albiruni dies ("Kitab ul-Hind") Albiruni, student of Sanskrit and Indian arts and sciences, author of Kitab ul-Hind, dies
r.1059-99-- Ghaznavis' prime Sultan Ibrahim's reign is secure, stable; Lahore becomes a great cultural center; sporadic raids eastward as far as Banaras
1186-- Lahore changes hands Mu'izz ud-Din b. Sam Muhammad Ghuri (deputed by his brother Ghiyas ud-Din Muhammad, the actual ruler) conquers Lahore, ending the reign of the Ghaznavids
1192-- the Chishti Sufi order arrives (Khvajah Mu'in-ud-din Chishti) Khvajah Mu'in ud-Din Chishti arrives, spends time in Lahore and Multan, finally settles down in Ajmer (Prithviraj's capital), dies there in 1236. Popular with the common people of all religions, he is called "Gharib-Navaz" (Protector of the Poor). The Chishti order is the most widespread in South Asia, and the only one to have all its major dargahs located in South Asia.
1192-- Second Battle of Tarain Muhammad Ghuri defeats the Rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan, reversing a defeat that took place a year earlier (in the First Battle of Tarain, where else?)
1192-93-- Aibak occupies Delhi Qutb ud-Din Aibak occupies and governs Delhi, acting on Muhammad Ghuri's orders
1194-- Ghuri moves eastward Muhammad Ghuri defeats the raja of Kannauj and takes Banaras; his military successes are formidable
1204-- Ghurids conquer NW Bengal Muhammad Bakhtiyar, a Ghurid general, establishes a base in northwestern Bengal
1206-- Ghuri is assassinated The death of Muhammad Ghuri, who is assassinated back in Afghanistan (or in Punjab, according to other accounts), marks the breakup of the Ghurid kingdom
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1192-1290-- the ILBARI or "Slave" dynasty Qutb ud-Din Aibak of the Ilbari Turks has seized Delhi, acting as a general for Muhammad Ghuri (and technically a military "slave" of his). He inaugurates the Ilbari dynasty that lays the foundations for the Delhi Sultanate.
r.1192-1210-- Qutb ud-Din Aibak He begins to build the Qutb Minar and the Quvvat ul-Islam mosque. Aibak formally rules as Sultan only after Muhammad Ghuri is assassinated (1206) back in Afghanistan. 
r.1210-36-- Iltutmish Qutb ud-Din Aibak dies, and Iltutmish takes power.  When his governor in Bengal rebels (1213), he puts down the rebellion (1227) and obtains formal recognition by the 'Abbasid Caliph. He patronizes Khvajah Qutb ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki (d.1237) of the Chishti order, and other Sufis. He seeks to balance the power of the "Turks" and "Tajiks" among his nobles. He also promotes the career of his promising daughter, Raziyya.
early 1200s-- the Suhrawardi Sufis Shaikh Baha ud-Din Zakariya (1182-1267/8) of Multan introduces the Suhrawardi Sufi order, which becomes popular in what is now Pakistan
1219 onward-- the MONGOLS! Under Chingiz ("Genghis") Khan (c1165-1227), and then under his grandson Hulagu Khan (1217-65), the Mongols sweep down from Northern Asia and take Transoxiana and begin steadily conquering everything else in sight. Blood, ruin, pyramids of skulls, the worst catastrophe ever to hit the Muslim world.
r.1236-40-- Sultana Raziyya Iltutmish's death in 1236 is followed by a succession struggle. His daughter Raziyya seizes power and struggles to keep it, but is later driven from the throne and killed.
1237-- Baba Farid ud-Din Ganj-e Shakkar With Bakhtyar Kaki's death in 1237, his disciple Khvajah Farid ud-Din "Ganj-e Shakkar" ("Treasury of Sugar") (d.1266) becomes his "khalifah" or replacement as the chief Chishti shaikh, but decides to live in retirement in Pakpattan (Ajodhan) in the Punjab, rather than in Delhi.
1241-- Mongols destroy Lahore In the chaos after Iltutmish's death, the Mongols under Hulagu Khan destroy Lahore
r.1246-87-- Balban in power (becomes sultan in 1265) Ghiyas ud-Din Balban becomes the de facto ruler behind a weak puppet sultan. In view of Mongol power, he adopts a policy of consolidation rather than expansion.
1258-- Mongols sack Baghdad Mongols under Hulagu Khan sack Baghdad and execute the reigning Caliph, thus ending the 'Abbasid caliphate
1266-- Hazrat Nizamuddin in Delhi With Baba Farid's death in 1266, his disciple Hazrat Nizam ud-Din Auliya (1237-1325) becomes the chief Chishti shaikh, and lives and dies in Delhi. (His dargah, or tomb, is still a famous Delhi landmark.) He sends out many disciples to Gujarat, Bengal, and the Deccan.
1253-1325-- Amir Khusrau This famous Indian-born Persian poet and musical connoisseur is exuberantly proud of his homeland; he is a follower and close companion of Hazrat Nizamuddin.
1270-- Lahore refortified Balban restores the fortifications of Lahore and re-garrisons the city, which has been almost deserted since the Mongol sack in 1241. He also builds a strong chain of new fortresses in the northwest.
1287-- Bughra Khan claims Bengal as his own Balban's son Bughra Khan, whom he had placed in Bengal after putting down the latest rebellion there, declares independence from the Sultanate within a week of Balban's death, and gets away with it for several decades
1290-- Mongols raid up to Delhi Another Mongol incursion, a reminder of the continuing threat in the northwest.
1290-1320-- the KHALJI dynasty They were originally members of an ethnically Turkish tribe from Ghur in Afghanistan.
r.1296-1316-- 'Ala' ud-Din Khalji Invades Devagiri (=Daulatabad), conquers Gujarat, captures Chitor, makes major incursions into the south (with some help from southern allies); considers establishing a new religion or conquering the world, but is dissuaded; takes many authoritarian measures; experiments with price controls; presides over a brilliant cultural flowering
1303-- Mongols beseige Delhi 'Ala' ud-Din is forced to retire from the city; but after two months, the Mongols retire (because of the prayers of Hazrat Nizamuddin, some say). After this, he starts intensive military preparations, and sends Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq, his best general, to the frontier.
1305, 1306-- Mongols driven back The Mongols invade twice, but 'Ala- ud-Din's officers have such military success that they even take the offensive; after this there is a long respite from Mongol attacks.
1320-1414-- the TUGHLUQ dynasty Power shifts to sultans from a different Turkish ethnic group
r.1320-25-- Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq Son of a Turkish slave of Balban's and a local Jat woman; fine general and ruler; puts down various revolts; is killed in the collapse of a victory pavilion celebrating his reconquest of Bengal
r.1325-51-- Muhammad Tughluq Son of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq, gifted but rash and cruel; too innovative for his own good; persecutes Sufi shaikhs and pushes them out of Delhi. The Sultanate reaches its greatest expanse under him, but its breakup also begins.
1327-35-- the move to Daulatabad Muhammad Tughluq moves the capital to Daulatabad (formerly Devagiri) in the Deccan and forces most of the people of Delhi to trek down there; but by 1335 he is obliged to give up the project.
1330-32-- the token currency Muhammad Tughluq issues coins not made of silver or gold, and tries in vain to get them accepted in the marketplace
1342-- Ilyas Shahi dynasty takes control of Bengal Shams ud-Din Ilyas Shah (r.1342-57) takes power in Bengal, starting a series of dynasties that keep Bengal independent for two and a half centuries
r.1351-88-- Firuz Shah III Firuz Tughluq, Muhammad's cousin; known for religious orthodoxy; jizyah levied on Brahmans. Expeditions to Thatta, etc.; much new architecture. Brings Ashokan pillars to Delhi, has Sanskrit texts translated.
1353-- vain attempts to reconquer Bengal Firuz Shah makes a huge punitive expedition to Bengal, kills large numbers of people but can't restore control of the territory; in 1359, he tries again, also vainly; local forces use guerrilla warfare
1388-1414-- chaos and civil war Firuz's son and grandson at war with each other; rebellions in all parts of the empire; six sultans in ten years; things in chaos.
1398-- Mongols sack Delhi Finally the Mongols break in for real: Timur ("Tamerlane") seizes and sacks the city, and thousands are massacred. The Tughluq sultan, Mahmud, flees the city; after this his dynasty is basically done for.
1414-51-- the SAYYIDS Khizr Khan (d.1421), the dynastic founder, is a governor of Lahore who rebels and occupies Delhi; he considers himself a viceroy of Timur's son. During this dynasty's weak rule, disintegration continues and  the PROVINCIAL KINGDOMS develop: Bengal, Kashmir, Gujarat, Jaunpur, Malwa, the Bahmanids, Khandesh.
1444-48-- Alam Shah The last Sayyid ruler, who retires permanently to Badaun in 1448 (and keeps a small court there till his death in 1478). His rule becomes proverbial: "the kingship of Shah Alam-- from Delhi to Palam" [badshaahii-i shaah ((aalam, az dihlii taa paalam]. (Palam is now part of Delhi, it's where the airport is.)
1451-1526-- the LODIS Several strong rulers seek to rebuild the Sultanate, but history goes against them.
1451-1489-- Bahlul Lodi Bahlul Lodi captures Jaunpur, Dholpur, Gwalior.
1489-1517-- Sikandar Lodi Bahlul's son Sikandar quells a rebellion in Jaunpur, invades Bihar, improves his position in Rajasthan; moves capital to Sikandra, near Agra, for more central administration; checks the process of disintegration; creates a culturally lively court.
1517-26-- Ibrahim Lodi Sikandar's son Ibrahim is embroiled in disputes with Afghan nobles. Daulat Khan Lodi, governor of Punjab and king's uncle, invites Babur, ruler of Kabul, to invade and take the throne. Babur does.
1526-- first battle of Panipat Babur's forces meet those of Ibrahim at Panipat, and are victorious; Babur captures Delhi and Agra.
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r.1526-30-- BABUR Zahir ud-Din Muhammad Babur, descended from both Genghis Khan and Timur, comes in from Kabul, overcomes Ibrahim Lodi, and begins to build a precarious empire. His memoir, the Babur namah, is one of the great classics of Islamic autobiography.
r.1530-39-- HUMAYUN When Babur dies, his son Humayun inherits the throne; but he mishandles Sher Shah's seizure of Bengal and Bihar
r.1540-45-- Sher Shah Suri The Suri interval-- Humayun wanders in the wilderness in Afghanistan, but his chance to return doesn't come until well after Sher Shah Sur's death. Sher Shah Sur is a brilliant ruler and administrator, who works out tacts that were later borrowed by the Mughals.
r.1545-54-- Islam Shah Suri A reasonably capable son of a brilliant father
1552-- the Humayun namah Gulbadan Begam (1522/3-1603) ends her memoir of life with her half-brother, Humayun (or else the rest is missing)
r.1555-56-- HUMAYUN returns Humayun finally fights his way back from a base in Kabul, but his early death means that his son Akbar must take the throne at the age of 14 (Bairam Khan as regent)
1556-- second battle of Panipat Bairam Khan defeats the Suri forces under their Hindu general, Himu; this secures Akbar's future
r.1556-1605-- AKBAR Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar (b.1542), greatest emperor of the age. His conquests include Malwa, Gondwana, Chitor, Ranthambhor, Gujarat, Bengal
1564-- abolition of jizya Akbar puts an end to this tax on non-Muslims (first imposed by Firoz Shah Tughluq in 1376)
1565-- pilgrimages to Ajmer Akbar visits the dargah (tomb) of Shaikh Mu'in ud-Din Chishti in Ajmer, and repeats his visit almost every year, sometimes going on foot all the way from Agra
1569-70s-- Fatahpur Sikri Overjoyed at the birth of Prince Salim in 1569, Akbar personally supervises much of the building and all of the architectural design
1574-- Akbar conquers Bengal Akbar personally leads an army as far as Patna, sends generals eastward, completes conquest of Bengal; but guerrilla wars with local rulers and other dissidents continue to fester for decades
1574-- Abu'l-Fazl at court Abu'l-Fazl (1551-1602) is presented at court, and develops a close relationship with Akbar; his brother Faizi (1545-95) and their father are also part of Akbar's inner circle (along with Raja Birbal)
c.1575-80-- religious experimentation he presides over religious contestations at the "Worship Hall" ('ibadat khanah) at Fatahpur Sikri; he also initiates a few intimates into a quasi-Sufi quasi-fraternity, the "Din-e allahi"
1579-- "Infallibility Decree" Shaikh Mubarak, father of Abu'l-Fazl and Faizi, proclaims that where jurists disagree, the king can choose any of their opinions
1579-82-- major rebellion in Bengal A diverse group of anti-Akbar forces, both Hindu and Muslim, manage to seize and hold power for several years, until Akbar sends a huge army in 1582; but guerrilla war continues in the eastern part
1580's-98-- Akbar in Lahore Challenges and threats in the north, from Uzbeks and others, keep Akbar occupied; finally he solidifies his power in the northwest
1599-1601-- his last conquests Akbar then turns his attention to the Deccan, and takes Ahmadnagar in 1599, Khandesh in 1601
1600-- Prince Salim rebels Among other consequences of his rebellion, Prince Salim instigates the murder of Abu'l-Fazl by a Hindu bandit chief, 1602
1602-- Dhaka established Akbar's powerful general Raja Man Singh establishes Dhaka as his new capital, in the continuing attempts to suppress guerrilla war in eastern Bengal
r.1605-27-- JAHANGIR After Akbar dies under suspicious circumstances (Jan. 1606), his son Nur ud-Din Jahangir (b.1569), the former Prince Salim,  reigns; his mother too is a Rajput princess
1606-- Guru Arjun executed The fifth Sikh Guru, Arjun, is executed for supporting the rebellion of Prince Khusrau
1606-- Nur Jahan Jahangir marries the previously-widowed Nur Jahan, and she and her father Itimad ud-Daulah become major powers at the court
1608-- Islam Khan subdues Bengal, from Dhaka Jahangir appoints 'Ala' ud-Din Islam Khan to subdue and govern Bengal, and he succeeds in doing so, using Dhaka as his base; Dhaka becomes a large, wealthy trading center
1617-- British 'factory' at Surat Through Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador from James I, the British receive permission to establish at Surat their first trading warehouse or 'factory'
early 1600's-- Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624), an early, influential, passionate spokesman for conservative Islam; anti-Shi'a too; refuses to prostrate himself before Jahangir, is first imprisoned, then released and honored
r.1628-58-- SHAH JAHAN Shihab ud-Din Shah Jahan reigns
1631-- Mumtaz Mahal dies Mumtaz Mahal's death in childbirth inspires Shah Jahan to start work on the Taj Mahal
1648-- Shahjahanabad Shah Jahan starts building the walled city that we now call "Old Delhi"
1658-- battle of Samugarh Aurangzeb defeats Dara Shukoh in the battle of Samugarh (and executes him in 1659)
r.1658-1707-- AURANGZEB The reign of the last powerful Mughal emperor
1664-- Shivaji appears Shivaji's first sack of Surat
1666-- Shah Jahan dies Shah Jahan dies in captivity in the Agra Fort, partially reconciled to his son
1666-- Shivaji in Agra Shivaji is presented to Aurangzeb in Agra, but arouses much hostility and escapes from the court in anger
1666-- capture of Chittagong In the course of subduing pirates (and local Porturuese) and rebel kings, Shaistah Khan takes Chittagong, renames it Islamabad; settlement of East Bengal makes it a financial mainstay
1667-- Shivaji sacks Surat Shivaji's second sack of Surat
1675-- Tegh Bahadur executed the 9th Sikh guru tries to set up his own kingdom, is defeated and executed
1679-- imposition of jizya Jizya is reimposed, after being in abeyance since Akbar's time (1564)
1680-- Shivaji dies Shivaji dies, but his son Shambhuji continues anti-Mughal warfare of great violence, with atrocities
1681-- off to the Deccan Aurangzeb goes to the Deccan, never to return
1686-- the British are punished The British try to seize Chittagong and fail; they are expelled from Surat and all other posts, for that and for collaborating in Bombay piracy and minting their own coins; then they are fined and allowed to return
1686-- Bijapur taken Aurangzeb captures Bijapur
1687-- Golconda taken Aurangzeb captures Golconda
1689-- Shambhuji executed Shivaji's son Shambhuji is captured and executed, but other relatives continue the hostilities
1703-62-- Shah Waliullah This great Islamic scholar systematizes the Islamic curriculum, and translates the Qur'an into Persian; his two sons later translate it into Urdu
1707-- Aurangzeb dies in the Deccan He is buried in a very simple tomb at Aurangabad, right near the temples of Ellora
r.1713-19-- Reign of Farrukhsiyar After Aurangzeb's death a period of chaos ensues; not until 1713 does Farrukhsiyar manage to take power
r.1719-48-- Muhammad Shah reigns During his reign, the empire gradually disintegrates; Mughal governors and local chieftains  become independent rulers of many regional kingdoms
r.1720-39-- Saadat Khan in Avadh By refusing a transfer to Malwa in 1927, Mughal governor Saadat Khan politely establishes his independent power base. The first Nawab of Avadh helps pacify this rich but fractious nominally-Mughal province in the Gangetic heartland; he founds Faizabad, but Lucknow continues eminent (Firangi Mahal famiy of 'ulama)
1720's-- "Jantar Mantars" built Maharaja Jai Singh of Jaipur, one of Muhammad Shah's governors, builds remarkable astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Banaras, and Calcutta
1724-- Nizam of Hyderabad Nizam ul-Mulk, a Mughal governor, seizes a kingdom for himself and founds a hereditary kingdom that lasts, with ups and downs, till 1948
1737-- Marathas almost sack Delhi Under Baji Rao, they reach and loot the suburbs before retreating
1739-- Nadir Shah sacks Delhi The weak Mughal emperor Nasir ud-Din Muhammad Shah can't prevent Nadir Shah of Afghanistan from sacking Delhi and massacring thousands, and claiming all territory west of the Indus; this is a mortal wound to the empire; Saadat Khan of Avadh negotiates a truce, but on humiliating terms
r.1739-56-- Safdar Jang in Avadh Saadat Khan's nephew succeeds him as second Nawab of Avadh, by heredity and through strong local support that lasted through many vicissitudes, with only nominal Mughal approval; Nawal Rai, a Kayastha, is his right-hand man
1748-- Ahmad Shah Abdali is defeated Nadir Shah's heir in the east attacks Delhi, is defeated near Sirhind; this is the Mughal empire's last victory
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r.1754-75-- Shuja ud-Daulah in Avadh The reign of the third Nawab of Avadh; he constructs great buildings, consolidates a tolerant pluralistic culture in Avadh, tries to protect the Mughal Emperor; but loses big at Buxar
1756-- British fortify Calcutta To deter French attack, the British fortify Calcutta;  the new Mughal governor, or 'nawab', of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, attacks and takes the city, imprisons officers (in 'Black Hole of Calcutta' episode)
1757-- battle of Plassey Clive comes north from Madras and retakes Calcutta; he then defeats Siraj ud-Daulah at Plassey through Mir Jafar's treachery; Mir Jafar becomes a puppet nawab
1757-8-- Ahmad Shah Abdali returns The Afghan prince Ahmad Shah Abdali (or Durrani) invades Delhi and is declared Emperor of Delhi; he sacks Delhi and Mathura
r.1759-1806-- reign of Shah Alam II Shah Alam II has a long reign, but it's full of suffering; he's blinded by Ahmad Shah Abdali
1761-- third battle of Panipat North Indian Afghan rulers combine to defeat the Marathas and block their plans to take over; the Marathas then split into four clan groups
1764-- battle of Buxar The English defeat Shuja ud-Daulah, nawab of Avadh, and his allies Mir Qasim (successor of Mir Jafar in Bengal) and the Mughal Emperor, in heavy fighting in Baksar (SW Bihar); Shuja ud-Daulah retains Avadhi loyalty, including support of local Rajput chieftains, but loses chunks of territory to British and must pay huge sums
1772-- British assume diwani of Bengal East India Company officially takes on, by the Mughal Emperor's farman, its previously covert role as revenue collector and administrator of Bengal
1772-- first 'Resident' (in Avadh) The British send a Resident to the Avadh court to represent them; this marks the start of their system of indirect rule
r.1775-97-- Asif ud-Daulah in Avadh The reign of the fourth Nawab of Avadh; he shifts his court to Lucknow, which becomes 'the first city in India of its day' as a cultural center, but increasingly politically isolated by British tactics
1787, 1788-- Ghulam Qadir in Delhi The Afghan chieftain invades Delhi, is driven out, returns the next year, blinds the emperor Shah Alam and practices other cruelties; the Marathas hunt him down and kill him, reinstate Shah Alam
r.1798-1814-- Saadat Ali Khan in Avadh The reign of the fifth Nawab of Avadh, who is the British choice rather than that of the previous Nawab; he duly and lavishly rewards them; Awadh becomes a prime recruiting ground for Company troops and officials (who get special legal privileges)
1799-- death of Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan dies defending Seringapatam
1803-- Lord Lake takes Delhi As part of Wellesley's war against the Marathas, Lord Lake takes Delhi. Shah 'Alam II (1760-1806) formally makes over Delhi to British custody
r. 1806-37-- reign of Akbar Shah II The next to last Mughal emperor
r.1814-27-- Ghazi ud-Din Haidar in Avadh The reign of the sixth Nawab of Avadh, the Company's choice, who duly offers more concessions and cash
r.1827-37-- Nasir ud-Din Haidar in Avadh The reign of the seventh Nawab of Avadh, who tries desperately to find chinks in the British armor that hems him in
1835-- Macauley's "Minute" Macauley's "Minute on Education" advocates English-medium instruction, to create a class of educated and Anglicized Indians
1837-- English displaces Persian English displaces Persian as the official language of the Courts in British India
r.1837-1857-- reign of Bahadur Shah Siraj ud-Din Bahadur Shah "Zafar," the last Mughal emperor
r.1842-47-- Amjad Ali Shah in Avadh The reign of the eighth Nawab of Avadh; increasingly focused only on Shi'a court elite in Lucknow
r.1847-56-- Vajid Ali Shah in Avadh The ninth and last Nawab of Avadh is deposed by a British coup in 1856 and exiled to Calcutta
1857-- REBELLION The "Mutiny" or "First War of National Liberation" marks a historical watershed
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1858-- Company dissolved The British East India Company is dissolved, and Parliament takes direct control of British India
1861-- Councils Act The Indian Councils Act gives Indians local electoral participation
1866-- Deoband The Dar ul-'Ulum at Deoband is founded, and begins teaching traditionalist theology in Urdu
1877-- Victoria as Empress Queen Victoria assumes the title "Empress of India"
1878-- Aligarh MAO College Sir Sayyid's great dream is realized, and the Aligarh Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College begins accepting students
1885-- CONGRESS formed First meeting of the Indian National Congress
1893-- cow protection Agitation for cow protection, Hindu-Muslim tensions
1905-- partition of Bengal Bengal is partitioned; boycott of foreign cloth; swadeshi movement
1906-- Muslim League The Muslim League is founded
1909-- Morley-Minto The Morley-Minto Reforms initiate communal representation in legislatures
1909-- "Hind Swaraj" A young Gujarati lawyer based in South Africa articulates his vision of an ideal society of loosely linked self-sufficient village republics
1911-- Viceroy's darbar "Three boons": Bengal partition undone; capital moved to Delhi; Calcutta made Presidency capital
1911-24-- Khilafat Movement Just back from South Africa, Gandhi joins with Indian Muslim leaders to call for support of the Ottoman Caliph against European pressure; the movement ends when Ataturk abolishes the Caliphate in 1924
1916-- Lucknow Pact Congress and the Muslim League agree on a set of communally organized and weighted electoral arrangements
1917-- Montagu's reforms The beginning of "dyarchy," and an electorate of one-tenth of the male population
1919-- the Rowlatt Act Continuation of wartime powers of detention and trial without jury
1919-- Jallianwala Bagh In Amritsar, General Dyer orders his Gurkha troops to fire into an illegal but peaceful demonstration in an enclosed garden; 370 trapped protesters were killed, over 1000 wounded
1920-- the Chamber of Princes The British create a forum through which the Princes can participate in political life
1922-- Chauri Chaura Gandhi calls off his first major "non-cooperation movement" after a mob in Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district locks 22 policemen in their station and burns it down
1928-- the Nehru Report Motilal Nehru presides over a Congress committee that produces a report repudiating the Lucknow Pact and calling for a federal India much like the one that actually emerged
1929-- the Great Depression The worldwide depression aggravates pre-existing economic difficulties
1930-- Gandhi's Salt March Gandhi marches 140 miles from his ashram to the sea to make illegal salt, defying the government monopoly; this brilliant piece of political theater gains worldwide attention
1930-32-- Round Table conferences A series of all-party discussions in London to try to agree on future political arrangements; Gandhi, Jinnah, Ambedkar and others participate
1931-- Gandhi-Irwin Pact A truce negotiated between Gandhi and Lord Irwin brings  a temporary halt to civil disobedience
1932-- "Communal Award" Special treatment, including separate electorates, is provided for a variety of minorities, including the untouchables
1932-- Gandhi fasts against it Gandhi, in jail, begins a fast to the death against separate electorates for untouchables; Ambedkar is finally forced to settle for other concessions instead
1935-- Gov't of India Act A new federal framework creates elections that provide very major victories for Congress, only very minor ones for the Muslim League
1939-- the Viceroy declares war Lord Linlithgow unilaterally declares war on Germany, without consulting Congress; in protest, the Congress ministries in the provinces resign
1940-- the Pakistan Resolution In its 1940 meeting, the Muslim League calls for the creation of Pakistan
1942-- the Cripps Mission Sir Stafford Cripps tries in vain to negotiate postwar independence arrangements with Congress
1942-- Quit India Movement Congress initiates a major mass movement that becomes uncoordinated and undisciplined when the Congress leadership are jailed; the movement is put down by military force
1943-- famine in Bengal A million people may have perished
1946-47-- desperate negotiations Congress, the Muslim League, and the British are locked in desperate, stubborn negotiations to find a framework for independence
1946-- "Direct Action" Frustrated, Jinnah calls for "Direct Action," and from Aug. 16th-20th over 4000 people of both communities are killed in mob violence in Calcutta; in many areas more mob violence is an increasing danger
1947-- independence and Partition Things move much too fast-- the border is drawn and the British leave so rapidly that terrible communal massacres and sufferings result, especially in the newly-divided Punjab
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