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==Mansur al-Hallaj passes through Sind (c.905): The great Sufi (*Univ. of Georgia*) saint Mansur ul-Hallaj makes a missionary journey to Sind in about 905. Although he composes a number of mystical writings (*Univ. of Georgia*), he is far more widely known for his martyrdom in Baghdad in 922. Intoxicated with the Divine presence, he is finally executed when he refuses to stop publicly proclaiming "Ana'l-Haq" (I am God/Truth). In Sindhi and Punjabi mystical folk poetry he is the supreme example of ecstatic love of God. 
==Delhi emerges (c.900–1000): "The first of the seven historical cities of Delhi is founded by Tomara Rajputs, who establish themselves as preeminent among competing regional powers in the northern plains after gaining independence from Gurjara-Pratihara control earlier in the century. The Tomaras build a fort (Lal Kot), later expanded and called Qila Rai Pithaura, the fort of Prithvi Raj Chauhan" (--Met); *wiki*.
==Khajuraho is begun (c.900–1000): "The Chandellas, gaining power as the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty wanes, patronize the construction of ornate temples in the nagara, or northern, style at their capital Khajuraho in Madhya Pradresh. More than eighty temples, built around a lake, are noted for their tall spires and exceptionally fine sculptures" (--Met). Image sets: *DSAL*; *AIIS Penn.*; *Berger*. Discussion: *art and archaeology*; *India Nest*. [*Routes*]
==Subuktigin rules in Ghazni (c.977-97): Alptigin, a Turkic slave given military training by the Samanid dynasty of eastern Iran, is dismissed from his post as regional governor in 961. He makes a dash to Ghazni, northern Afghanistan (on the eastern fringes of the Samanid kingdom); he captures it, and rules it independently until his death soon thereafter. His own slave and son-in-law, Subuktigin, eventually seizes power and begins to expand the kingdom, partly through wars with the Turkic-Hephthalite Hindu Shahi dynasty. [*Routes*]
==The Bhagavata Purana is completed (c.900's): "The Bhagavata Purana...describes the incarnations of Vishnu and draws on earlier Vaishnava traditions such as the "Harivamsa" (1st c.) and "Vishnu Purana" (5th c.). It is influenced by southern ecstatic devotional traditions. Vishnu is traditionally associated with ten avatars ("incarnations"); two of the most popular of these are Rama (hero of the Ramayana and model of ideal kingship) and the cowherd/lover Krishna" (--Met). Here's a modern multimedia version of the Bhagavata Purana from a disciple of Swami Prabhupada: *bhagavatam*. And devotional illustrations for some of its episodes: *Black Peacock*.
==The Chola dynasty (c.860-1285) is established in the South by members of an ancient royal family; for the next several centuries, their kingdom is an important player in Indian politics. The Cholas absorb the Pandyas (920); but their expansion northwards is blocked by the Hoysalas in the Deccan--which also shields them from some of the more chaotic northern political developments of the next few centuries. Above all they are famous for the astonishing "Chola bronzes" beloved of art historians--and of everybody else who ever sets eyes on one. The Met considers them "among the finest works of art in the world." Discussion by "art and archaeology": *Chola bronzes*; *Rajaraja Museum pieces*.
==Abhinavagupta  (c.990-1015): "In Kashmir, philosopher Abhinavagupta expands on the theory of rasa, building on earlier work first articulated by Bharata in the 4th c. in the "Natyashastra" (the Science of Dance). A basic component of Indian aesthetic theory, rasa ("flavor") refers to the emotional and aesthetic experience incited by performance, poetry, and art. There are nine types of rasa....Experiencing the flavor of a work of art requires not only that the work evoke a response, but also that the experiencer possess the aesthetic sophistication and knowledge required to respond in an appropriate way. The experience of a work of art is thus a process of exchange" (--Met). Discussion: *K. N. Dhar*; *P. C. Hogan*.

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