paintings emerge as an artistic genre (c.1000–1250):
paintings are usually religious. "Workshops specializing in Buddhist
Jain texts are active in Gujarat, Bengal, and Nepal, while Rajasthani
produce Hindu examples. They are noted for a linear, flat style and a
Examples from the 1000's: *Met*.
For comparison: religious art in Europe at the time, the *the
Wat (c.1113-50): The influence of the great Indian epics
spreads into Southeast Asia. Angkor Wat, in Cambodia, built by
II, contains many motifs from India, including this depiction of the
war. This huge and complex monument is dedicated to Vishnu. Then as
religious politics evolve, Jayavarman VII builds Angkor Thom and the
temple (1181-c.1243), which are dedicated to all divinities under the
of the Buddha (*flickr*
"Ramanuja, the poet and philosopher and patriarch of the Shrivaishnava
tradition, propounds the philosophy of vishishtadvaita, or qualified
and describes the theology of bhakti (devotion). He is credited with
to the north of India and the introduction there of Shrivaishnavism" (--Met).
His commentary on the Vedanta Sutra: *George
"Gita Govinda" (c.1100-1200): At the court of King
Lakshmana Sena in Bengal, Jayadeva composes his Sanskrit poem about the
love of Krishna for the gopis, and supremely for Radha alone among
"This erotic text is read and performed by Vaishnavas as an allegory
the longing of human souls for the divine, and lays the foundation for
representations of Radha and Krishna in painting from the sixteenth
A multimedia presentation on the text: *IGNCA*.
Jagannath Temple in Puri, Orissa, is built (1100's), with
its famous special forms of Krishna (Jagannath, "Lord of the World"),
and Subhadra-- and its famous chariot festival, from which we get the
word "juggernaut." The temple's official website: *jagannath*. [*Routes*]
Lingayats (Virashaivas) appear: The Lingayats of
(c.1100 onwards) are radically independent and populist in their
for them, god is to be found only outside formal religious hierarchies.
Members of the group wear a Shiva-linga on their person at all times,
their name. Discussion: *St.
Ghuri's military successes: In 1186, Muhammad Ghuri of
encyclopedia*), west of Ghazni, takes Lahore from the Ghaznavids,
finishing off their dynasty; he commemorates his victory by building
"Minar-e Jam" (*wikipedia*;
H. Dupree*; *Dr.
V. Thewalt*), which soon help to inspire the Qutb Minar. Then in
battles at Tarain he first loses to (1191), then defeats (1192), the
leader Prithviraj Chauhan. He moves on to defeat the Raja of Kannauj
take Banaras (1194). Discussion: *Ikram
ud-Din Aibak occupies Delhi (1192-93): By Muhammad
order, his military slave-general Qutb ud-Din Aibak occupies the
Delhi and governs it as a part of the Ghurid kingdom. Qutb ud-Din
the fort recently renamed by Prithviraj Chauhan the "Qila Rai Pithaura"
(the former Lal Kot); he considers some building projects of his own.
Mu'in ud-Din Chishti arrives (c.1190), spends time in
and Multan, and finally settles down in Ajmer (Prithviraj's former
he dies there in 1236. Popular with the common people of all religions,
he is called "Gharib-Navaz" (Protector of the Poor), and his dargah in
Ajmer draws many visitors of all religions. The Chishtis are the most
Sufi order in South Asia, and the only order to have all their major
(tombs of pirs) located in South Asia. Discussion: *Ali
Din ka Jhompra, Ajmer, c.1199-1200: In Prithviraj's
capital, Qutb ud-Din Aibak, on behalf of Mu'izz ud-Din Muhammad Ghuri,
converts parts of an existing Jain temple into a mosque which he
the "Hut of Two and a Half Days." [*Routes*]