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==The Buddha is born (c.480 BCE): According to Buddhist tradition, in the Shaka tribe, living in the Himalayan foothills of southeastern Nepal (*the early Buddhist heartland*), a young prince is born who is called Siddhartha Gautama. Through early experiences, he realizes the true nature of life and suffering: *Met Museum*. [*Routes*]
==the Buddha's teaching: The young Siddhartha Gautama begins to preach at Sarnath (*Berger*), near Varanasi. Soon he becomes known as the Buddha, the "Enlightened One": *Sources of Indian Tradition*.
==Herodotus (c.450 BCE) becomes the first person whose writing about India has survived; his world perhaps looks like this: *Henry Davis*. He reports in his "History" (*Columbia U.*) that Darius used to receive more tribute from his Indian provinces than from any others; he also speaks of the valued presence of Indian troops in the Persian army; *India as the Greeks knew it*.
==The giant gold-digging ants: Of course, Herodotus does report some very odd things about India as well. Among them are the giant gold-digging ants, in Book 3, Chapters 102-105 (*Perseus*); these ants are picked up by *Strabo* (see section 15:44) and *Pliny*, and become part of a body of legendary material that circulates in Europe till the medieval period (*Munster*). And now, at last, here's a theory to explain them: *livius*.
==the Buddha's death (c.400 BCE): The Buddha dies around 400 BCE (*L. S. Cousins*). Within a few centuries, his religion becomes South Asia's most important cultural export. Remarkable stories about his many previous births also appear, in the form of narratives called "Jatakas" (*IGNCA*). Images: *British Library*.

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