The Malabar (southwest) and Coromandel (southeast) coasts, with their network of small trading ports, 1749

Source: ebay, Nov. 2004

"Thomas Jeffreys was an English engraver, geographer & publisher whose work was both prolific and of a high standard. This attractive map comes from the series he engraved for Salmon's "Geographical Grammar", first published in 1749, and is from the 1764 edition."

A town's harbor or water access actually came to be called its "road" (see the full *map of Madras by Herman Moll, 1726*)

Source: ebay, Feb. 2005

For sailing ships, there were special coastal navigational charts (this one by Laurie and Whittle, 1794)

Source: ebay, Nov. 2004

Even on this very early map (1558), the density of known coastal towns is remarkable

(downloaded Jan. 2005)

"Countries around Indian Ocean. Description:  (Double opening) Map of the Indian Ocean showing parts of Arabia, East Africa, Persia, Western India and Madagascar; in Ethiopia, Prester John is depicted on his throne. Title of Work:  Queen Mary atlas. Author:  Homem, Diego. Production: 1558."

The Americas too were explored in this way, with great coastal knowledge but little information about the interior (from a map by Matthaus Merian, Frankfurt, 1646)

Source: ebay, Nov. 2007

Moving inland was sometimes a very uncertain enterprise, and towns were often depicted strung into long lines like subway routes, as on this map by Pierre Du Val, 1666; *Du Val's more detailed route map of the Deccan, 1690, from Surat westward* (in it he especially recommends mangoes, "the best fruit of India")

Source: ebay, Mar. 2004

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