SUFISM in South Asia

Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh of the Hujwiri Sufi order came from Ghazni to Lahore in 1039, and lived there till his death in 1072; his shrine remains an important Lahore landmark

1) Hazrat Mu'in ud-Din Chishti, called "Gharib navaz" (Protector of the poor), settled in Ajmer around 1190; his dargah is still very widely visited today
Hazrat Mu'in ud-Din is here depicted with other Sufi shaikhs, including his disciple Qutb ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki of Delhi (d.1237), called "Qutb (=polestar, axis) Sahib"
2) Hazrat Qutb Sahib was so important a protective figure in Delhi that the *Qutb Minar* came to be called by his name; his dargah is in Mehrauli
3) His disciple Baba Farid ud-Din Ganj-e Shakkar ("Treasury of Sugar") (d.1266), who chose to live in his hometown of Pakpattan instead of Delhi, became an influential early devotional poet in Punjabi
4) Next in the Chishti order came his disciple Hazrat Nizam ud-Din Auliya of Delhi (1238-1325), whose dargah remains an important Delhi landmark today
5) Nizam ud-Din's disciple Shaikh Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Chiragh-e Dihli ("Lamp of Delhi") (d.1356) was the last great Chishti shaikh of Delhi
6) His disciple Hazrat Banda-navaz ("Servant-protector") Gesu-daraz ("Long-hair") ended up dying (c.1422) in the Deccan; his dargah is in Gulbarga
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The tomb of the Suhrawardi pir Shah Rukn-e Alam, an early architectural masterpiece (1320-24), has been called "the glory of Multan"
Other early Sufi shaikhs began to have important shrines as well: the dargah of Hazrat Makhdum ul-Mulk Sharf ud-Din bin Yahya Maneri (d.1381), of the Firdausi order, became so important that Babur made a pilgrimage to it
The dargah of *Nagore Andavar* (fl.1500's, a disciple of the Shattari pir Muhammad Ghaus Gwaliori), in Tamilnadu, is a syncretistic shrine dedicated to religious harmony
Akbar built *Fatahpur Sikri* in honor of Shaikh Salim Chishti (d.1572), whose white marble tomb there, rebuilt by Jahangir, is one of the great achievements of Mughal architecture
Smaller shrines of local importance came to be dotted over the whole landscape of South Asia

A few examples of the powers and practices of Sufis
The famous "Masnavi" of Rumi was influential far beyond the formal Sufi orders
Wandering ascetics called "darvesh" or "faqir" usually had only a very loose connection, if any at all, to the Sufism of the formal orders

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