TRADING NETWORKS of all kinds, c.1700's-1850's

The Dutch were active and well-organized merchants, and sought to understand the cultures they encountered; their power increased at the expense of the *Portuguese*

The Danes too had their own East India Company, and a fort in *Tranquebar* from as early as 1620; but they were never as prominent as the *French*

European ship-building and navigation techniques were steadily improving-- and so were the skills of naval warfare
Cannons were becoming indispensable on the battlefield, and were used in more organized ways; infantry tactics were analyzed in new books

More efforts began to be made to depict and interpret Indian culture, and the Indian environment generally; *cultures around the world* began to be studied

Meanwhile, Parliament kept trying to ensure that all British trade would take place through their own East India Company
"India House" in London became steadily more grandiose, as the East India Company's trade expanded

India had long been famous for the skills of its traditional craftsmen
Now there were new markets, and new sources of patronage; *bidri* work became widely popular; fancy cases were made for *bezoars*
And there was always the very widespread and vital trade in cotton
The cotton and cotton goods trade included carders, spinners, weavers, and many other artisans-- and particularly *tailors*

Merchant princes often lived in fine mansions located right on main streets, with shops at street level; shops could also surround mosques and temples
Small shopkeepers catered to the retail market, selling provisions and food items by the roadside
In the streets, fast-food entrepreneurs flourished
Fairs, festivals, religious processions, and pilgrimage sites provided constant opportunities for vendors of all kinds-- and especially for professional entertainers

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