Styles of EDUCATION and LITERACY, old and new

Handwritten books were rare and precious, and access to them was uncertain at best; palm leaves were often the medium of choice
Handwritten manuscripts were error-prone and required frequent recopying; by the later 1800's, *print culture* was vigorously spreading in South Asia

But well into the twentieth century, most bureaucratic documents were created and maintained, often multilingually, entirely by scribes
Scribes of all kinds, katibs, and calligraphers were always in demand; *Islamic calligraphic traditions* were powerful and prestigious

Simple local schools for boys had existed all over South Asia for many centuries, to teach basic literacy skills
Glimpses of traditional Islamic schools (for boys) and educational settings
Christian missionary and other social-welfare schools (for boys) thus had a tradition to build on
Schools for girls and young women, however, were a genuine colonial innovation, with no real Indic or Islamic antecedents

Starting in 1817 with Hindu College (later Presidency College) in Calcutta, western-style institutions began taking shape in Lahore, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, and elsewhere (a British *report on education, 1887*)
In 1878, Sir Sayyid's "Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College" joined their number

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