Matsya by Philip Baldaeus, from 'Nauwkeurige beschrijving Malabar en Choromandel, derz. aangrenzend rijken, en het machtige eiland Ceylon', Amsterdam, 1672; also: *Vamana*; *Parashurama*; *the Buddha*; *Kalki*

Source: ebay, Aug. 2014

A depiction of some avatars from 'Asia: the first part... The Vast Empire of the Great Mogol and Other Parts of India...' by John Ogilby, London, 1673: also *Matsya*; *Kurma*; *Varaha* (shown above); *Narasingha*; *Rama*; *the Buddha*; also *a Shiva temple*

Source: ebay, Mar. 2013

The ten avatars of Vishnu, according to Pieter van der Aa, in 'La Galerie Agreable du Monde (...).Tome premier des Indes Orientales.', published by P. van der Aa, Leyden, c. 1725 (*the title page*): Avatars *ONE*; *TWO* (shown above); *THREE*; *FOUR*: *FIVE*; *SIX*; *SEVEN*; *EIGHT*; *NINE*; *TEN*; also, from the same source:

*"Comment les Indiens portent aux fetes les Idoles Elwara et Wistnou"*
*"Fiancailles parmi les Benjanois"*
*"Formes des Saints, ou Vagabonds Benjanois"*
*"Holy, Fete celebree par les Benjanes et Rasboutes masquez"*
*"Idoles, Mathematiciens, Philosophes, etc., des Indes"*
*"Les Apostats Benjanois font desreches inities au Paganisme"*
*"Les Penitens Benjanois se lavent dans la Riviere de Ganges"*
*"L'Idole Ganga suivie d'un Sourdaes, pendant avec un croc attache a son corps"*
*"Maniere de se marier parmi les Benjanois"*
*"Pagoda, ou Temple de l'Idole Wistnou, represente sous la figure d'un Pilier"*
*"Temple des Idoles Benjanois en dedans"*

Source: ebay, Feb. 2012

"Yxora. (The idol Yxora or Vedan / Bed / Beth of the Brahmans, an idol with 4 heads, 4 hands and 2 feet. The hands are typically holding 4 books to teach on law and religion.) Plate 6: 'Parsis...' (Three parsis guarding the fire in the temple.) Plate 7: 'Jougis ...' (Yogi Religion, a sekt of the Brahman's and their servants. They are motionless in the pose they chose. Their belt indicates their rank.) Plate 8: (Two Yogi's.) From 'Atlas historique...' by Zacharie Chatelain, Amsterdam, 1732

Source: ebay, Jan. 2012


"The Bamun Avatar, representing the magnificent Bali Orbelus giving away the arrogated Empire of the World, to the disguised Vishnu," a copper engraving, 1790's, probably based on Valentijn 1726

Source: ebay, Dec. 2005

More copper engravings from the same series, apparently from an English translation of Valentijn's Dutch work "Zaaken van den Godsdienst," 1726:

*The Matsya avatar, or first incarnation of Veeshnu in the form of a fish to recover sacred books lost during the deluge*
*The Vara avatar or second incarnation of Veeshnu in the form of a boar to support upon his tusks the Earth, immersed in the waters of the deluge*
*The Courma avatar, or third incarnation of Veeshnu in the form of a tortoise to sustain the Earth convulsed by the assaults of demons during the deluge*
*The sixth avatar or Veeshnu incarnate in Parasa Rama, the exterminator of the Khettri tribe*
*The seventh avatar or Veeshnu incarnate in Ramachandra combating with the ten-headed Ravan, the gigantic tyrant of Ceylone*
*Buddha or the ninth avatar, incarnate for the purpose of abolishing sanguinary sacrifices*
*The Calci or 10th avatar, an evident allusion to the destroying angel and white horse of the Apocalypse*
*Creeshna trampling on the head of the crushed serpent*


Biruma, Wischtnu, and Isuren (Ishvara), from *PREVOST*, 1757

Source: ebay, Mar. 2006

"Ixora [=Ishvara], an East Indian god," from: 'Geschiedenis van alle wereldgodsdiensten', by William Hurd (Amsterdam, Martinus de Bruyn, 1781); also: *"Quenevadi [=Ganapati], son of Ixora"*

Source: ebay, Feb. 2007

"Ceremony of Washing the Goddess Cali, and the Idol Jagan-Nath," from 'Encyclopaedia Londinensis, or Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Letters', by J. Wilkes et al, London, 1796-1828; also *"The Gods of the Indian Triad"*; also *"A Piadah or Peon, retained in Great Families"*

Source: ebay, Feb. 2009

*"Brahma, The Idol of the Hindoos," from Cavendish Pelham, 'The World, or, the Present States of the Universe Being a General and Complete Collection of Modern Voyages and Travels, London, 1806-8*

Source: ebay, Oct. 2013

A mythological overview, from Johann Georg Heck's "The Iconographic Encyclopedia" (New York: R. Garrigue, 1851): "Figure 1.  The Trimurti 2.  Vishnu and Siva 3.  Vishnu as a fish 4.  Vishnu as a tortoise 5.  Vishnu as a bear 6.  Vishnu as a dwarf 7.  Vishnu as Parasu Rama 8.  Siva 9.  Vishnu 10. Vishnu as Krishna 11. The nymphs of the Milk Sea 12. Vishnu as Kaninki or Katki 13. Siva as Hermaphrodite 14. Siva on the giant Muyelagin 15. Brahma and Saravadi 16. Buddha 17. Buddha-Surya 18. The Hindoo solar system 19. Mythic camel  21-24. Hindoo sacrificial utensils 25-30. Mongolian idols  CENTER: 20. Hindoo penitents"

Source: ebay, July 2006

An attempt at cosmology, from John Zephaniah Holwell (1711-98), 'Interesting Historical Events, Relative to the Provinces of Bengal, and the Empire of Hindostan, etc.', probably from the second edition of 1766-71: *upper half*; *lower half*; also *Kali* (*detail 1*; *detail 2*); also *Rama and Ravana in combat* (a *detail*); also *Durga killing the buffalo demon* ( *detail 1*; *detail 2*); also *the Ras Lila* (a *detail*). Holwell commissioned Calcutta artists to do these drawings.

Source: ebay, July 2008

An attempt to depict the cosmology of the Puranas, and Mount Meru, provenance and exact date unknown; a steel engraving, 1850's, with modern hand coloring

Source: ebay, Dec. 2006

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