"The Shroud" (Kafan)
by Premchand (1881-1936)


*Harmonized translation*
from Urdu-script and Devanagari versions,
by Frances W. Pritchett, Dec. 2004
*Notes* to the translation

*A note on the story*

*A note on textual and script problems*

*The original Urdu text, Dec. 1935*

An Urdu-script-based, Devanagari-supplemented text:
*1a*; *1b*; *1c*; *1d*
*2a*; *2b*
*3a*; *3b*; *3c*; *3d*; *3e*

*A glossary* by Imre Bangha

*A scholarly version in Devanagari script*

Another Devanagari version, with annotations:
*A Premchand Reader*, edited by Norman Zide

(Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1965), pp. 99-110
*A glossary* for the Devanagari version, by S. Verma

A translation from the Urdu by Matt Reeck and Aftab Ahmad:
*Annual of Urdu Studies 19 (2004)*

A translation from the Urdu by Jeffrey Krouse and Hanif Fauque, 2003-04:
*provided by the translators*

Premchand's address to the new All-India Progressive Writers' Association, Lucknow, 1936:
*on this site*

Some of Ghalib's thoughts about shrouds: {3,5}, {7,7}
Mir on shrouds: {689,2}


Some background material:

Shaista Akhtar Banu Suhrawardy, "Prem Cand and His Imitators":
*A Critical Survey of the Development of the Modern Urdu Novel and Short Story (1945), Chapter XV*

C. M. Naim and Carlo Coppola, "Premchand, 1881-1936"
(introduction, novel excerpt, story): *Mehfil 1,2 (1963)*

Sara Rai, "Realism as a Creative Process: Features of Munshi Premchand's Ideology":
*Social Scientist 7, 84 (July 1979)*

K. P. Singh, "Premchand and Gandhism": *Social Scientist 9,97 (Aug. 1980)*

  Frances W. Pritchett, "The Chess Players: From Premchand to Satyajit Ray":
*Journal of South Asian Literature 22,2 (Summer-Fall 1986*
[*the original Urdu text of Shatranj ki bazi*]
[*a Devanagari text and glossary for Shatranj ke khilari*]
[*an Urdu text and glossary for the Satyajit Ray film*]

Jesse Astbury, "Exploitation and Conscience in Premchand":
*Annual of Urdu Studies 11 (1996)*

Jagdish Lal Dawar, "Representation of Popular Culture in Premchand's Works":
*Social Scientist 24, 275-77 (April-June 1996)*

Rupert Snell, "A Timeline of Premchand's Life":
in *a SOAS workbook, 1996*

Premchand, "The Pharaohs of Urdu," an essay, trans. by C. M. Naim:
*Annual of Urdu Studies 18 (2003)*

Annie Zaidi, "A Tribute to a Master":
*Frontline 21,26 (Dec. 18-26, 2004)*

Alok Rai, "Out of the Textbook":
*Indian Express, Sept. 4, 2005*



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