by Sir Muhammad IQBAL (1877-1938)


*"Taranah-e Hindi" (1904)*

*"Taranah-e Milli" (1910)*

*a close comparison*

*a study in contrasts*

*a contextual discussion by C. M. Naim*


For more help with Iqbal's poetry:
David J. Matthews, Iqbal: A Selection of the Urdu Verse, Text and Translation (London: Univ. of London, SOAS; and New Delhi: Heritage Publishers, 1993): *dk agencies*; *amazon*

*Iqbal: some of his best Urdu poems* (another study site)

* Iqbal's life (wikipedia)*

*an Iqbal chronology*

*"Islam as an Ethical and Political Ideal," his first speech in English, Lahore, April 1908*

*Iqbal's Presidential Address, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad, Dec. 1930*

*On the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930)*

*"The Life of the Poet-Philosopher" by H. and L. Malik, 1971*

*The Iqbal Academy of Pakistan*

*More on Iqbal*



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