Section 6 == *script chart*; *positional chart*; *more help*

6.1 == The letters kaaf and gaaf

The letter kaaf , "k," loses most of its flat hook in initial and medial forms, retaining only its vertical line and single slash-mark at the top. NOTE, however, that it has special combining forms for kaaf + alif and kaaf + laam . These are not entirely obvious to the intuition, but MUST be carefully learned whether they seem logical or not.

The letter gaaf , "g," is simply a kaaf with an extra slash-mark at the top. Everything said about kaaf applies to it as well, including the point about the two special combining forms, which in this case are of course gaaf + alif and gaaf + laam .

Both initialkaaf and initial gaaf are commonly written calligraphically in such a way that the single slash-mark (I call it a 'flipper')-- or the lower one, in the case of a gaaf -- looks like part of the vertical line, as if it would be written first, after which the pen would move downward into the vertical line. This impression however is wrong: it is only an illusory effect produced in certain fancy and much-admired calligraphic styles. If one actually wrote that way--incorporating the (lower) 'flipper' into the letter at the time of writing-- the result would be to guarantee bad and slow handwriting. Remember that the 'flipper(s)' above kaaf and gaaf are like the cross on a "t" in English-- they are completely separate, and are added after the whole word or letter-group has been written.

6.2 == The letter laam

The letter laam , "l," loses its large rounded bottom in initial and medial forms, and remains a simple vertical line. You might at first think you could confuse it with alif , but you really can't, because laam is a connector and alif is a non-connector.

There's a special connecting form for laam + alif , which also must be learned uniquely: the alif seems to sit in the lap of a laam with a minimized curve that sits on the line.


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