composed by Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
- based on the novella Carmen (1845) by Prosper Mérimée
- adapted as a libretto by H. Meilhac & L. Halévy
- music by Georges Bizet
- first performed Paris Opéra-Comique, March 3, 1875
- audience scandalized by opera's "obscenity" and "immorality"
- strong characterization, especially portrayal of sexual passion and jealousy, and powerfully realistic dram