Microsoft Releases 'Unlimited Potential to Learn'
Microsoft Nigeria's Partners in Learning (PiL) programme has completed the Kaduna leg of the training of primary and secondary school teachers and is moving to Abakaliki next week and Ibadan the week after. At the end of this round, 225 teachers, selected, nationwide, by the National Teachers' Institute and the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC); would have been impacted with skills in the use of ICT in education and Microsoft education applications. Each of the trainees is expected to go back and train 10 of his/her colleagues, each of whom are also expected to impact on a minimum of 40 pupils. In addition to this, NTI will also work with Microsoft to develop a world class ICT curriculum for Nigerian schools.
The Memorandum of Understanding for PiL was signed with the Federal Government in 2004. PiL is a 215 million dollar, worldwide project of Microsoft that aims to take ICT to over a billion people, through the multiplying effect of 'train the trainer'. Besides building capacity through training, the programme supports schools curriculum and soft ware donations and subsidies to primary and junior secondary schools in Nigeria.
Last year, PiL trained about 3, 000 Nigerian teachers and students from different secondary schools and Colleges of Education, partnering with a couple of organisations, such as SchoolNet Nigeria.
The Unlimited Potential (UP) plan, of which PiL is a part, is Microsoft's long-term commitment to use technology, training and partnerships to transform education, foster local innovation and enable jobs and opportunities to sustain a continuous cycle of social and economic growth for the estimated five billion people around the world, who have yet to realize the benefits of technology.
Another project is the Home Makers' Programme for women in seclusion in Bauchi. Microsoft found that some of these women have PhDs, but they probably had not had anything to do with western education in decades until this programme. "They are now learning to use IT and also learning skills like sewing by the side. Learning to use the internet, they now visit sites that offer designs for them to make. They print them out, they are making them and selling them. They are doing Desktop Publishing, making greeting cards and wedding invitations. These are women who did not leave their house", Jummai Umar-Ajijola, the Citizenship Manager said. The grant was given in March and the first programme started in May with 45 women. "But we are scaling up. Another cycle of grants is expected in November." To make the women realise full benefits of their training in IT, the Bauchi community resource centre devoted two hours everyday for women alone to use the cyber café.
Another partner of Microsoft is Fantsuam Foundation in Bayan Loko, Kafanchan, Kaduna State, which has been supported to build a Knowledge Resource Centre. Part of the grant is meant for the training of some information officers, who take the information from the Knowledge Resource Centre to the communities, in the manner of the Town Criers of old. Fantsuam's area of intervention is microfinance, so it has a huge clientele of over 2, 000 people. It also has a HIV/AIDS intervention programme and offers free computer training to orphans and vulnerable children, which Microsoft also supports.
Analysis of the uses of information and communication technology for gender empowerment and sustainable poverty alleviation in Nigeria[1
Most government poverty alleviation programmes through ICT (such as radio, newspaper, mobile phone etc) are now been communicated to the very poor the programmes are meant for. Monitoring of poverty alleviation programmes, feedback from the beneficiaries /non-beneficiaries are also done through ICTs such as "radio weekly link programme" Presidential monthly chart" etc. At the national, States and local level in Nigeria people can express their views on the performance of government anti-poverty programmes chatting with the president, governors or the local government chairperson as well as officers directly in charge of the execution of such programmes.
In addition, anti-poverty measures introduced through the use of ICT has been able to generate substantial amount of employment through the use of mobile phone by many Nigerian to sustain a living. There are many call centers in villages and towns mostly operated by people between age distributions of between 20-29 years (38%), mostly women with secondary/ post secondary education in Nigeria. Some of these people run shops for the sale of Global System of Mobile (GSM) accessories as a major form of occupation as means of self-employment as well as a means of sustaining livelihood (80% and 84% respectively as shown in Table 9). Past studies have shown that over 2,000 persons are directly employed by GSM operators and an estimated of 40,000 Nigerians are benefiting from indirect employment generated by GSM operators in Nigeria (Ndukwe, 2003). ICTs have also assisted in the area of micro-credits finance and cooperatives. Farmers are now organizing cooperatively to manage their access to market as an alternative to being at the mercy of powerful buyers. Credits are now easily made available to the poor for a better quality of life through such social groups and ICTs.
Through the use of ICTs such as the GSM telephone, transaction costs of many Nigerian who are poor have drastically been reduced. People make called before traveling and for business transaction. The technology has led to increase service innovation, efficiency and productivity.
In order for Nigeria to be economically competitive, politically stable, and socially secure, there is the need to utilize technology in making advances in health, politics, education, business, agriculture, consumer goods, national security and poverty reduction. The country needs to focus its attention on the development, access, and implementation of ICTs both in the rural area where majority of the poor resides and in the urban centers.
Formation of women association, farmer associations and Community-bases organisations at rural areas will act as training centres and access points for ICTs. From such group, the poor will be taught how to use computers for word processing, making complex calculations and tables of their work plans and income and expenditure. The access points will also play the role of information centres where price lists, weather forecasts will be available in any form either as print, digital, audio, video form. To achieve these, the following have been recommended by the authors:
- The problem of technical support can be solved by strengthening the local and regional technical schools and colleges;
- The problem of access to electricity in most rural areas of Nigeria and it irregular supply in the Urban centres can be solved through the promotion, generalization and better understanding of the technology of local solar or biofuel supply system. While the latter can feed a small- scale local alternate Current (AC) generator eventually connected to the grid, the solar cell system does not have to feed a storage- inversion system to generate AC; it can feed the computer directly with low- voltage direct current (DC);
- There is still need to examine the laws that give rise to or perpetuate poverty. This will require radical review of ownership of assets, access to social services with particular emphasis on education and health.
- Sustainable poverty reduction strategy should not focus narrowly on gender and ICT. They should be seen as essential component of poverty reduction process where both sex are carried along
- There is a need to establish women’s clubs and the existing ones strengthen in communication skills and ICTs just as in the case of a group (Self Employed Women’s Association) in India in where the rural women were trained in the production and use of video to generate income, disseminate new skills and to advocate for changes in policy (Balit 1999)
- The target population for policy-making of poverty alleviation must be known in relation to each specific service. Service must be capable of differentiating between the poor and those not so poor, so that benefits can be directed to their intended recipients.
- A telecentre that is designed to support community development should be stressed by Nigeria government and in accordance with Collen (2000), it should be aggressive and creative in localizing its knowledge and information resources. Locations for telecentres must be carefully selected, and should take into consideration the "level of potential demand for communication and information services from a large number and wide range of users", its proximity to other organisations and institutions, infrastructural considerations and socio-cultural issues (Anderson 1999). The information systems established should be multi-sectoral (agricultural research, extension, training and education, and health)
- In most rural areas in Nigeria with a greater proportion of the poor and where the infrastructure is not yet developed, the internet could be used from a central point (telecentre) for online broadcasting and for exchanging relevant information to them
- Nigerian governments should formulate national strategies to narrow knowledge gaps, including those for technology acquisition and distribution, education and training and expanding access to technologies through its economic reform of deregulation and privatizations
- Gender who are the worst hit of poverty should be allow to participate not only at the formulation stage of poverty programmes but equally at the implementation stage
- The present effort of Government through its Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP), now known as Women and Youth Employment Scheme (W-YES) needs to be properly focused to create sustainable employment.
- Government must continue with its liberalization policies in the agricultural and telecommunication sectors to attract more private sector investment in the ICT development and utilization as it has done for the makers of "Zinox" computers. This will make ICT more accessible and cheaply. The policies must also be consistent, stable, and investment friendly.
- The moribund rural telephony project must be resuscitated and doggedly implemented to bring the ICT revolution and its potentials to rural areas where the majority of Nigerians live and work to ensure the country's survival. Access to information is part of empowerment of the rural masses.
- There is the need for the Government to make ICT the hub of the Policy wheel, to link the various sectors and absorb the cost at the initial stage of implementing the Policy.
- There is a need to extend the monitoring, evaluation and documentation of successful and unsuccessful applications of ICTs for poverty alleviation and to develop models for identifying strategic future investments and programmes.
- It is necessary for the Government to encourage locally assembled computers to enable more people to get access to the ICTs at a reasonable cost.
- The information needs of various users should be identified in order to develop user-specific, locally sensitive content and applications. The role of civil society and the private sector become very important in this identification process. It is important for the policy on ICT to take into account training of disadvantaged people to harness their potential for the National interest.
- The Infrastructure development of the country should be tackled seriously for decentralization of ICT to take place in all districts to facilitate socio-economic development of the country and alleviate people sufferings.
- There is the need for the Government to focus on the introduction of ICT into its educational systems from the Basic level to the Tertiary level. The revision of the curriculum of these institutions should be design in such a way as to meet the needs of the country. This will make the children to be use to the use of ICTs and prevent them from entrance into poverty in future through their access to opportunities that can fetched them jobs
- The necessary resources must be available in the educational institutions to facilitate the teaching and learning of ICTs in the country’s institutions.
- The Government must address in the Policy issues relating to the duties and taxes paid on computers and accessories to make it affordable to most people to spread the literacy rate.
- There is the need for the Legal and Regulatory framework to ensure that the telecommunication operators follow required standards and provide quality service to customers.
- The general telecommunication facilities in the country must be improved and spread to all the districts, towns and villages in the country since the spread of ICT would rely heavily on this facility.
- Government through its relevant ministry should develop specific policies on ICTs and ensure equitable access for rural populations to information and ICTs since the sector holds so much potential for poverty alleviation and socio-economic development. Investment and policy structures to stimulate initial demand for ICTs should be put in place
- There is the need to address policy issues relating to Human Resource Development. It is important for all employers to re-train their staff to make them ICT literate and a must for all new employees.
- Nigerian government must encourage Women and the Youth both in and out of school to be part of the ICT process
- There is a need to develop ICT strategies for rural areas taking into consideration differences in languages, culture, socio-economic conditions and infrastructure. There is also a need to encourage the private sector to invest in the design of ICTs appropriate for use in rural areas.
- ICT has not been given appropriate attention in the Nigeria yearly budget, to sustain poverty alleviation using ICTs, a portion of revenue from telecommunications should be used to support and promote the expansion of ICT infrastructure in rural areas.
- The socio-economic context should be integral to the design of ICT projects. Local initiatives should be encouraged to explore the opportunities presented by ICTs and incorporate participatory communication and learning processes
- There is the need for a constant and painstaking review of the poverty eradication policies in order to make them relevant to the contemporary realities through the use of ICT
SchoolNet Nigeria was launched in September 2001 with the support of the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Telecommunications the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Education Tax Fund. It is a non-profit organization created to address the secondary education sector in Nigeria. SchoolNet Nigeria embodies a partnership between a diverse range of public and private sector interests to mobilize Nigeria’s human and financial resources for the purposes of using ICTs in education.
SchoolNet Nigeria creates learning communities of educators and learners who use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to enhance education within and beyond Nigeria, and to contribute to the transformation of the education system in Nigeria into one which participates in and benefits from the knowledge society.
- Through the DIGINET (Digital Inclusion) Programme:
– Implement, support and coordinate ICT development projects in education.
– Provide and support Internet and technology solutions for schools, particularly lower-cost and scalable solutions.
– Provide support mechanisms for schools in respect of technical infrastructure and connectivity.
- Through the PEOPLE NET (Human Resource Development and Capacity Building) Programme:
– Develop local, state-wide and national ICT in education capacity.
– Support distance education and teacher development through use of ICTs
– Implement training for educators to use technology to enhance teaching and learning.
– Address the shortage of technical ICT skills.
- Through the K-NET (Knowledge Warehouse) Programme:
– Support and facilitate the development of education content, particularly local content, for use by learners and educators.
– Promote collaboration among educators and learners.
– Assess functionality and impact of ICT-based learning opportunities and resources to encourage systemic improvements.
- Through the VOX-NET (Advocacy and Marketing) Programme:
– Create awareness of the use of ICTs in education at all levels leading to grassroots demand and adoption
– Develop partnerships in support of ICTs in education.
– Provide strategic guidance and support policy development for education to create an enabling environment.
**Integrating Mobile Learning into Nomadic Education Programmes in Nigeria: Issues and perspectives**
- Think Quest Africa: ThinkQuest is an international initiative in which high school children collaborate with other children to create web sites that address a range of important issues.
- SchoolNet Nigeria DigiNet Centre: The SchoolNet DigiNetCentre Project aims to ensure that Nigerian schools are given the opportunity to allow their students to cross the ‘Digital Divide’, and use ICTs to enhance their learning experience. The project entails reaching all schools in Nigeria, and equipping them with computer and communications technology. More importantly, the schools receive educational content, and teachers are put onto a teacher development programme to ensure that they can effectively use the technology in the classroom.
- MTN Book Aid Project: This project was launched in November 2002 together with MTN Nigeria and Education Tax Fund. The project aims to assist at least 10,000 secondary schools in Nigeria with print-based educational resource materials.
In Nigeria, there are six nomadic groups:
- The Fulani (with population of 5.3 million)
- The Shuwa (with population of 1.0 million)
- The Buduman (with population of 35,001)
- The Kwayam (with population of 20,000)
- The Badawi (with population yet to be established)
- The Fishermen (with population of 2.8 million)
The last group, The Fishermen, is concentrated in Rivers, Ondo, Edo, Delta, Cross River, and Akwa-Ibom States (FME, Education Sector Analysis, 2000). The first five nomadic groups listed are considered pastoralist nomads.
Of the estimated 9.3 million people that currently comprise Nigeria’s nomadic groups, approximately one third, that is 3.1 million are of school and pre-school age. The pastoral nomads are more highly disadvantaged than the migrant fishermen, in terms of access to education primarily because they are more itinerant. As a result, the literacy rate of pastoral nomads is only 0.28 percent, while that of the migrant fishermen is about 20 percent (FME, 2000). The basic responsibility of the Commission for Nomadic Education, among others, is to provide primary education to the children of pastoralist nomads – a responsibility shared with the States and Local Governments. To provide education to its nomads,a multifaceted strategy has been adopted by the Commission, that includes on-site schools, the ‘shift system,’ schools with alternative intake, and Islamiyya (Islamic) schools.
Delivery of educational services to the children of all nomadic groups has tended to follow the lines of the formal school system. Special attention was paid to these groups by the Nigerian Government when it set-up the National Commission for Nomadic Education by Decree 41 of 12 December 1989 (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1989).
By the beginning of the 1995/ 1996 school session, there were 890 nomadic schools in 296 Local Government Areas of 25 States of the Federation catering for the education needs of the children of pastoral nomads alone. Of these, 608 schools are owned and controlled by States, 130 by Local Government, and 152 by Local Communities. Together they serve 88,871 pupils of the estimated population of the 3.1 million nomadic school-age children. Of this number, 55,177 (62%) were boys and 33,694 (38%) were girls. There were 2,561 teachers, a majority of whom 1,326 or 51 percent were teacher-aides, who are unqualified and in need of upgrading. This has been the usual practice because of the nature and characteristics of the nomadic populace.
As of 1993, 661 schools had been built for pastoral nomads, out of which 24 percent (n
165) had permanent classrooms and 46 percent (n
293) had temporary classrooms built of grass, mats, canvas tarpaulins, et cetera. Subsequently, mobile, collapsible classrooms were procured. Altogether, the schools had an enrolment of 46,982 children taught by 1,896 teachers. This number, however, only scratches the surface of the problem, as it only serves an estimated 3.1 million primary school age nomadic children.
To improve the literacy rate among Nigeria’s nomadic populations, the National Commission for Nomadic Education employed various approaches such as onsite schools, ‘shift system’ schools with alternative intake, and Islamiyya (Islamic) schools, to provide literacy education to its nomads. A critical appraisal of these approaches by the commission, however, shows that very few of the schools were actually viable. The current mobile school system in the strictest sense remains sparingly used, primarily due to the enormity of problems associated with this model. Some mobile schools, however, are in operation in the River Benue area of Taraba, Benue, Adamawa, Nassarawa, Borno, and Yobe Sates.
37 percent of Nigerians owned only radio, while 1.3 percent owned only TV sets. Nearly forty-eight percent (47.8%) owned both radio and TV sets, while 13.9 percent had neither. Findings from the study revealed that radios are easily affordable, accessible, and often more handy to use than TV. Those without TV and radio, however, still have access to the media through socialization in their local communities.
The pastoral Fulani as a captive audience for radio and television programmes have radios, which they carry along during herding. The literate world can, thus, reach itinerants Fulani without disrupting their nomadic life or livelihood. To improve literacy, especially in the rural areas, the Nigerian Government has introduced radio and television educational programmes. The government supplies hardware such as radio, television, and electric generators, and builds viewing rooms for public use.
The social structure of Nigerians encourages communal living, which encourages people within the same household or community to share things. This is especially true for the nomadic families. Nomadic people tend to share whatever they have without grudge; thus, their ‘culture of sharing’ encourages communal television viewing and as such, should advance the use of tele-centres to accommodate literacy programmes aimed at teaching nomadic populations.
Only 31.6 percent of Nigerians own television sets. The percentage of those without television sets is higher due to poverty and low incomes of many Nigerians. This study also reveals that radios are more affordable, and hence attainable, than television sets. Indeed, many Nigerians face difficult times as many families have been affected by retrenchment, under-employment, and unemployment in recent times. This creates and perpetuates a situation whereby many adult Nigerians – who are often struggling to support and feed their families – cannot afford luxury goods like televisions. To further exacerbate problems brought about by pressures of high inflation, electrical failures are common throughout Nigeria, a reality that further discourages many Nigerians from buying power-hungry appliances and durable goods like television sets. The major source of electricity is government owned. In Nigeria’s cities, where electricity does exist, power interruptions are very common, while most rural areas altogether lack the electrical infrastructure to power televisions.
Time of tuning to radio or TV varies according to programmes of interest and the time of the day, when the audience’s attention is most available. A survey conducted by this study showed that Nigerians tuned to radio all day long. Of those surveyed, 97.5 percent indicated that they listened to radio in the morning, 88.5 percent in the afternoon, while 97 percent and 91.2 percent listen in the evening and night, respectively. Of those surveyed, 61.7 percent view television in the morning, 51.4 percent in the afternoon, 88.1 percent in the evening, and 93 percent in the night. These findings indicate that higher percentages of Nigerians tune into radio and television during the evening and at night.
These findings suggest that scheduling of education programmes for community education purposes (i.e., nomadic educational programmes) will be more effective if broadcasts are transmitted when audiences are most available and, arguably, attentive.
Ownership of radios naturally leads to radio listening habits. It is expected that all members of a household will have access to radio (if available). Table 4 analyses the pattern of ownership of radios in Nigeria. 81.4 percent of Nigerians own a radio, while 18.6 percent had none. This shows that radios are readily available. The implication is that four out of every five members in any community own a radio. Broad access to radio arguably facilitates the flow of information to both urban and rural areas, and can assist in the development of community education, especially at the grassroots.
Audience listening habits develop based on overall availability of radio in the community. Table 4 shows that radios are readily available, primarily because they are affordable and easy to operate in both rural and urban centres. Nine out of every 10 Nigerian adults listen to radio. Analysis by State, also shows the same pattern with more State recording higher percentage of between 90 percent and 100 percent. As noted earlier, the accessibility to radios accounts for the high listening habits. Table 6 below examines how Nigerian’s listen.
The mode of listening in Table 6 indicates that the pattern of radio listening habits are uniformly distributed among those listening alone (25.7%), listening in-group (25.8%), and alone or in-group (47.6%). It is observed that across the States, listening habit ‘alone or in-group’ is higher than others. In fact, the ‘alone or in-group’ mode of listening is nearly the same as Nigerian’s TV viewing habits, with the exception of radio sets, which are more easily transportable. Group listening provides opportunity to discuss various programmes of interest and is arguably a good forum to develop education programmes.
Although the Nigerian Government has spent millions of naira (the currency of Nigeria) to support its nomadic education programme, educational attainment among the Fulani remains low, and the quality of education among them is mediocre at best. The current form of nomadic education, therefore, has truly yet to lift the literacy and living standards of the Fulani people as children of farmers rather than fulanis constitute up to 80 percent of the pupils in nomadic schools. In Plateau State, for example, only six of 100 children in the Mozat Ropp nomadic school are Fulani (Iro, 2006).
‘Literacy by Radio’ is an educational programme that has been implemented throughout the country. Indeed, radio currently provides instructions and relays messages to Nigeria’s nomads, who are typically on the move while grazing their cattles. The provision of tele-centres that provide Nigeria’s rural and nomadic peoples with practical skills acquisition are currently being used to teach topics such as health and socio-economic issues that affect their daily lives. Further, from a pedagogical perspective, Kinshuk (2003) believes mobile learning will serve a whole new highly mobile segment of society, a reality that could very well enhance the flexibility of the educational process. Chen, Kao, Sheu, and Chiang (as cited in Milrad, Hoppe & Kinshuk, 2003) say that characteristics of mobile learning must include:
- Urgency of learning need
- Initiative of knowledge acquisition
- Mobility of learning setting
- Interactivity of the learning process
- ‘Situatedness’ (sic) of instructional activities
- Integration of instructional content
According to Kinshuk (2003), mobile learning facilitates provision of educational opportunities. In the Nigerian context, Kinshuk’s (2003) work can be expanded to include the integration of mobile learning into nomadic educational contexts and programmes.
Mobile learning is the use of any mobile or wireless device for learning on the move. It is any service or facility that supplies a learner with general electronic information and educational content that aids their acquisition of knowledge, regardless of location and time.
Mobile learning, as a novel educational approach, encourages flexibility; students do not need to be a specific age, gender, or member of a specific group or geography, to participate in learning opportunities. Restrictions of time, space and place have been lifted.
Mobile technologies enable students to become more adaptable to flexible and contextual lifelong learning, a situation defined by Sharples (2000) as the “knowledge and skills” people need to prosper throughout their lifetime. Clearly, these activities are not confined to specified times and places; however, they are very difficult to achieve through traditional education channels. Put simply, mobile technologies fulfill the basic requirements needed to support contextual, life-long learning by virtue of its being highly portable, unobtrusive, and adaptable to the context of learning and the learners’ evolving skills and knowledge (Sharples, 2000).
Mobile schools use collapsible classrooms that can be assembled or disassembled within 30 minutes and carried conveniently by pack animals. While a whole classroom and its furniture can be hauled by only four pack animals, motor caravans are replacing pack animals to move the classrooms. A typical mobile unit consists of three classrooms, each with spaces to serve 15 to 20 children. Some classrooms are equipped with audio-visual teaching aids.
The processes of using mobile phones for educational purposes can be illustrated as:
- Mobile schools that can be dismantled and quickly moved have proven their worth and appear to fit with Nigeria’s nomadic peoples’ peripatetic culture, lifestyle and livelihood.
- The National Commission for Nomadic Education can enter into contractual agreement with the network providers to procure relatively inexpensive mobile phones, which can then distribute to the nomads in their schools.
- Designated learning centres can be established at strategic locations along the nomads traveling routes, providing a place where a facilitator can attend to the needs of the nomads. Other materials, such as learning manuals and programme syllabi, can also be distributed from these strategic locations.
- Facilitators, via a simple call using their mobile telephones, can call the nomads to track their students’ progress in their studies, and to determine and address any problems that any learner – whether they are stationary or mobile – typically face in mastering the course materials and learning objectives. Similarly, the nomadic learners can also be regularly encouraged to call the course facilitator on their mobile phones, should they encounter any problems or require clarification or help. Facilitators are also encouraged to call and network with their fellow facilitators. Use of mobile phone in one’s native language, helps to establish a cordial and hence, sustainable learning atmosphere based on trust and collegiality.
A 'Center for Commercial and Agricultural Information' (PICA) for the collection and the publication of price lists via the internet has been launched in Togo to enable farmers and traders to interact over prices and availability of products. of the products by ICT
The center is equipped with computer and Internet facilities with a web page [http://www.tradenet.biz
] with a strong integration of data and mobile technology.
The center will allow producers and tradesmen to consult in real time over price lists that are in conformity with the ECOWAS region.
Farmers will also consult over business opportunities in the area -the availability of products and stocks - in short farmers and traders will be able to conclude commercial transactions with partners from West Africa and other destinations.
The platform is also equipped with a system that makes it possible to send SMSes to producers, to salesmen and to purchasers.
The center will also equip farmers with packages to receive free information on mobile phones on the prices of 400 agricultural producers of the regional markets in West Africa, that is Benign, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Togo.
This project is supported by the regional network of information systems of market and agricultural trade in West Africa (MISTOWA
) and its aims are to increase regional agricultural trade and food security by improving and linking the existing regional efforts to generate, disseminate, and make commercial use of market information.
The center will also help the regional networks of Market Information Systems (MIS) and trade partners to address other constraints, so that strong and dynamic commodity chains emerge that will use the information to enhance production, handling, credit, and trade; and value added services such as post-harvest, processing, packaging, and quality control.
] Analysis of the uses of information and communication technology for gender empowerment and sustainable poverty alleviation in Nigeria
, Obayelu A. Elijah, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, and Ogunlade, I., University of Ilorin, Nigeria, International Journal of Education and Development using ICT > Vol. 2, No. 3 (2006)
**[2**] Integrating Mobile Learning into Nomadic Education Programmes in Nigeria: Issues and perspectives,
R. A. Aderinoye, K. O. Ojokheta, & A. A. Olojede, University of Ibadan, Nigeria ,The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol 8, No 2 (2007), ISSN: 1492-3831, June – 2007
E-agriculture for Togolese farmers**, Noel Kokou Tadegnon, Highway Africa News Agency, September 3, 2007 [http://hana.ru.ac.za.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg
ICT Updates From Around the Continent [analysis] 11 September 2007, 01:08, All Africa, Factiva