Research and Working Papers


Alfred Stepan and Charles Taylor, eds., Boundaries of Toleration (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).  Contributors include Salman Rushdie and Ira Katznelson. Part of the Columbia University Press series, “Religion, Culture and Public Life” which I co-edit.

Mirjam Künkler and Alfred Stepan, eds., Democratization and Islam in Indonesia (New York: Columbia University Press,  2013). Indonesian translation forthcoming.

Ahmet Kuru and Alfred Stepan, eds., Democracy, Islam and Secularism: Turkey in Comparative Perspective (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012). Turkish translation 2013,

Timothy Samuel Shaw, Alfred Stepan and Monica Duffy Toft, eds.,  Rethinking Religion and World Affairs (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Alfred Stepan, Juan J. Linz, and Yogendra Yadav, Crafting State Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011).  Simultaneous paperback and hardback editions.

Alfred Stepan, ed., With a Conclusion by Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Democracies in Danger (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009). Arabic translation forthcoming, Beirut. I was the academic coordinator of the Third General Assembly of the Club of Madrid, an organization of over forty Presidents and Prime ministers of new and old democratic states. I commissioned eight articles for this book which constituted the core materials discussed at the Assembly.

Alfred Stepan, Arguing Comparative Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). Simultaneous hardcover and paperback printings. Currently in sixth printing.

Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America and Post-Communist Europe. (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.) Simultaneous hardcover and paperback printings. Currently in eight paperback printing. Chinese translation published in 2009. Translations, Portuguese (Paz e Terra, Rio de Janeiro, 1999), Italian (Il Mulino, Bologna, 2000) Croatian (Helsinki Watch, Zagreb, 1999), Korean (Korean Political Association, Seoul, 1999), Japanese, (2003), Persian (2008), Spanish, (Madrid 2009), Indonesian.

H.E. Chehabi and Alfred Stepan, editors, Politics, Society and Democracy: Comparative Studies. (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995).

Alfred Stepan, editor, Americas: New Interpretive Essays (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

Alfred Stepan, editor, Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). Oxford Paperback, second printing, 1990. Portuguese translation by Paz e Terra (Rio de Janeiro, 1988). 

Alfred Stepan, Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone (Princeton University Press, 1988). Second hardcover printing, 1989. Princeton Paperback, third printing, 1990. A Portuguese translation of an earlier, shorter version of the book was published in August 1986 as Os Militares: da Abertura à Nova Repblica (Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra). The fourth printing was issued in February 1987. Selected by the Jornal do Brasil as one of the five outstanding non-fiction books of 1986. Spanish translation by Sudamericana/Planeta S.A. (Buenos Aires, 1988). Japanese translation by Dobunkan Shuppan (Tokyo, 1989); Korean translation by Youleumsa (Seoul, 1990); Indonesian translation by PT Pustaka Utama Grafiti (Jakarta, 1994).

Alfred Stepan, The State and Society, Peru in Comparative Perspective (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978). Princeton paperback, fourth printing, 1988. Portuguese translation by Paz e Terra (Rio de Janeiro, 1980).

Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan, editors, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Baltimore and London: The John's Hopkins University Press, 1978). Second hardcover printing, 1980. Also published by Johns Hopkins as a four-volume paperback including Linz and Stepan, eds., The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Europe, Third Printing,1996, and Linz and Stepan, eds., The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Latin America. Fourth printing, 1987.

Alfred Stepan, editor and contributor, Authoritarian Brazil: Origins, Policies, and Future (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973). Second hardcover printing, 1975. Yale paperback, sixth printing, 1985.

Bruce Russett and Alfred Stepan, editors and co-contributors, Military Force and American Society (New York: Harper and Row, 1973). Paperback, 1973.

Alfred Stepan, The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971). Second hardcover printing, 1974. Princeton paperback, sixth printing, 1987. Spanish translation by Amorrortu editores (Buenos Aires, 1974), Portuguese translation by Arte Nova (Rio de Janeiro, 1976). Censored - best seller list, censored. Two Indonesian translations.


Luigi Einaudi, Richard Maullin, Alfred Stepan and Michael Fleet, Latin American Institutional Development: The Changing Catholic Church (Santa Monica: The Rand Corporation, October 1969).


Alfred Stepan, Juan J. Linz and Juli F. Minoves,  “Democratic Parliamentary Monarchies:” Journal of Democracy, (April 2014), pp.

Alfred Stepan and Juan J. Linz,“Democratization Theory and the ‘Arab Spring’” Journal of Democracy (April 2013). Co-lead article.

Alfred Stepan, “A Revised Theory of Federacy and a Case Study of Civil War Termination in Aceh, Indonesia” in  Joanne McEvoy and Brendan O’Leary, eds., Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Places. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), pp. 231-252.

Alfred Stepan, “Rituals of Respect: Sufis and Secularists in Senegal in Comparative Perspective” Comparative Politics (July 2012). Pp. 379-401. Lead article.

Alfred Stepan, “Tunisia’s Transition and the Twin Tolerations” Journal of Democracy, (April 2012), pp. 89-103.

Alfred Stepan, “Views from the Indian Electorate: Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions with Democracy, Politics, and the Economy” in Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya, eds., India: Trade, Poverty, Inequality and Democracy, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 21-50.

Alfred Stepan, “Stateness, Democracy, and Respect in Senegal”, in Mamadou Diouf, ed., Sufi Islam, Toleration and Democracy in Senegal (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013).  French translation agreement signed.

Alfred Stepan, “Multiple Secularisms of Modern Democratic and Non-Democratic Regimes”, in Craig Calhoun, Mark Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan VanAntwerpen, eds., Rethinking Secularism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 114-144.  Simultaneous hardback and paperback. SSRC project.

Alfred Stepan and Juan J. Linz, “Comparative Perspectives on Inequality and the Quality of Democracy in the United States,” Perspectives on Politics  Vol 9, No 4 (December 2011), pp. 841-856.

Alfred Stepan, “Fernando Henrique Cardoso: The Structural-Historical Scholar- President of Brazil” in Dietrich Rueschemeyer and Richard Snyder, eds.,Cardoso and Approaches to Inequality  (Boulder and London: Lynne Reiner, forthcoming 2014). Portuguese and Spanish translations forthcoming.

Alfred Stepan, Juan J. Linz, and Yogendra Yadav, The Rise of "State-Nations" Journal of Democracy, (July 2010), pp. 50-68.

Alfred Stepan, “Under Theorized Political Problems in the Founding Democratization Literature”, in Stepan, ed., Democracies in Danger (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009).

Alfred Stepan, “Central European University as a Network: A Memoir”,
Social Research, (Winter 2009) Special Issue on Free Inquiry at Risk: Universities in Dangerous Times.

Alfred Stepan, “Multiple Secularisms”, Seminar , No. 593 ( Delhi, January 2009), pp. 108-119.

Alfred Stepan, “Comparative Theory and Political Practice: Do We Need a ‘State Nation’ Model as Well as a ‘Nation State’ Model?” Government and Opposition (Winter 2008). Lead article, pp.1-30.

Alfred Stepan “The US Federal Model and Multinational Societies: Some Problems for Democratic Theory and Practice” in Mohammad-Said Darviche and William Genieys, eds., Multinational State-Building: Considering and Continuing the Work of Juan Linz (Montpellier, France: Pôle Sud, 2008), pp.7-26.

Alfred Stepan: “Democratic Governance and the Craft of Case-Based Research”, a 63 page
interview with me  in Geraldo L. Munck and Richard Snyder, eds., Passion, Craft, and Method in Comparative Politics ( Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007), pp.392-455. The other interviews in the book are with Gabriel Almond, Barrington Moore, Robert Dahl, Juan Linz, Arend Lijphart, Guillermo O’Donnell, Phillip Schmitter, Theda Skocpol, Robert Bates, Adam Przeworski and David Collier.

Alfred Stepan and Arthur Trindade Maranhão Costa, “Commentary: Crafting Democratic
Policing in New and Old Democracies,” St. Antony’s International Review, Vol. 2,
No. 2 (February 2007): 9-17.

Alfred Stepan, “Federalism, Multinational Societies, and Negotiating a Democratic State
Nation: A Theoretical Framework, The Indian Model and a Tamil Case Study” in        K. Shankar Bagpai, ed. Democracy and Diversity: India and the American Experience (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 225-261.

Juan J. Linz, Alfred Stepan and Yogendra Yadav, “‘Nation State’ or ‘State Nation’?: India in Comparative Perspective” in K. Shankar Bagpai, ed., Democracy and Diversity: 
India and the American Experience (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp.50-106.

Alfred Stepan and  Mirjam Kunkler, “ An Interview with Amien Rais” {Former President of 30 million member Islamic organization, Muhammadiyahh,  and a leader of the  Indonesia democratic transition} Journal of International Affairs (Special issue on Religion and Statecraft), Vol. 61, No 1( Fall/Winter 2007), pp. 205-218.

Alfred Stepan, “Ukraine: Improbable Democratic “Nation-State” But Possible Democratic “State-Nation?” Post-Soviet Affairs, vol. 21, (Oct-Dec 2005), pp. 270-308. Lead article. Expanded and updated version to be printed in Archie Brown’s festschrift late 2009.

Alfred Stepan, “Electorally Generated Veto Players in Unitary and Federal Systems”, in Edward L. Gibson, ed., Federalism and Democracy in Latin America (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004), pp. 323-361. Simultaneous paperback and hardback editions. Spanish translation forthcoming.

Alfred Stepan with Graeme Robertson, “Arab, Not Muslim, Exceptionalism”, Journal of Democracy, vol. 15, (October 2004), p. 140-146.
Alfred Stepan with Graeme Robertson, “An ‘Arab’ More Than ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap”, Journal of Democracy, 16, (July 2003).

Alfred Stepan, “How Burma Could Democratize,” with Andrew Reynolds, Zaw Oo, and Stephen Levine, Journal of Democracy, vol. 12 (October 2001), pp. 95 - 108.

 Alfred Stepan, “Religion, Democracy and the ‘Twin Tolerations’,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 11 (October 2000), pp. 37 - 57. Reproduced as Lead article in Larry Diamond et al., World Religions and Democracy (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005). Longer version with same title in my Arguing Comparative Politics, pp. 123-154. Numerous translations including Basa-Indonesian, Farsi, French and Italian.

 Alfred Stepan, “Toward a New Comparative Politics of Federalism, Multinationalism and Democracy: Beyond Rikerian Federalism” in my Arguing Comparative Politics, 2001, and reprinted in Edward L. Gibson, ed., Federalism and Democracy in Latin America (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004), pp. 29-84. Simultaneous paperback and hardback editions. Spanish translation forthcoming.
An earlier version appeared in Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politics, 1998, vol. 28,1, pp. 5-54. Lead Article. The article is also anthologized in a Queens University Press, Canada, Selection of ‘Classics in Federalism’.

Alfred Stepan, "Brazil's Decentralized Federalism: Bringing Government Closer to the Citizens?" Daedalus, Vol. 129, No. 2 (Spring 2000), pp. 145 - 170, Portuguese translation.

 Alfred Stepan, "Russia Federalism in Comparative Perspective," Post-Soviet Affairs, Vol. 16 (April - June 2000), pp. 133 - 176.

 Alfred Stepan, "Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the U.S. Model," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 10 (October 1999), pp. 19 - 34. Full article reprinted in the Sunday edition of O Estado de São Paulo, under the supervision of Paulo Sotero. Reprinted in Nancy Bermeo and Ugo Amoretti, eds. Federalism and Territorial Cleavages (Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 2004). pp. 441-456. Italian translation.

 Alfred Stepan, "Para uma nova análise comparativa do federalismo e da democracia: federações que restringem ou ampliam o poder do Demos", Dados, Vol.42, No.2, (1999). Lead article.

 Alfred Stepan, "Modern Multi-National Democracies: Transcending a Gellnerian Oxymoron," in John A. Hall, ed.,The State of the Nation: Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp.219-242.

"Toward Consolidated Democracies," with Juan J. Linz, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 7 (April 1996), pp. 14-33.

One of the many contributors to a joint report by the Group on East-South Systems Transformations released as Adam Przeworski, Sustainable Democracy (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

"Democratic Transition and Consolidation in Southern Europe with Reflections on Latin America and Eastern Europe," with Juan J. Linz and Richard Gunther, in Richard Gunther, P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, and Hans Jrgen-Puhle, eds., The Politics of Democratic Consolidation: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), pp. 77-123, 415-416.

"The Fifth Republic: A Model for Import? Reflections on Poland and Brazil," with Ezra Suleiman, in H.E. Chehabi and Alfred Stepan, editors, Politics, Society and Democracy: Comparative Studies (Boulder, Colo,: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 393-414.

"When Democracy and the Nation-state are Conflicting Logics: Reflections on Estonia," Archives Europennes de Sociologie, Vol. XXV., No.1 (1994), pp. 127-141.

"Constitutional Frameworks and Democratic Consolidation: Parliamentarism vs. Presidentialism," with Cindy Skach, World Politics (October 1993), pp. 1-22. Lead article. Reprinted in Hungarian, Politikatudomnyi Szemle (Budapest), No.4 (1993), pp. 51-70, in Czech, Politologick asopis (Brno) No.1 (1994), pp. 47-64, and Polish, Pastwo i Prawo, Vol. XLIX, No.4 (1994), pp. 28-42, and in Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, eds., The Failure of Presidential Democracies: Comparative Perspectives (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), pp. 119-136. The Linz/Valenzuela volume, with the above article, has been translated into Italian (Bologna, Il Mulino, 1995) and into Spanish (Madrid and Buenos Aires, Alianza Editorial, 1996).

"Romania: In a Sultanistic State," (Review Essay), Times Literary Supplement (October 9, 1992), pp. 26-27. Reprinted in Rmania Libera (Bucharest).

"Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia," with Juan J. Linz, Daedalus, Vol. 121 (Spring 1992): 123-140.

"On the Tasks of a Democratic Opposition," Journal of Democracy, Vol.1, No.2, (Spring 1990), pp. 41-49. Reprinted in Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner, editors, The Global Resurgence of Democracy (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993).

"Relaciones civiles-militares en las recientes transiciones democráticas del cono sur de
Amrica Latina (Post-Scriptum)," co-authored with Juan J. Linz, Sntesis (Madrid), 11 (Mayo-Agosto 1990), pp. 77-85.

"Parlamentarismo X Presidencialismo no Mundo Moderno: Revisão de um Debate Atual," Estudios Avanados (São Paulo), Vol. 4, No.8 (Janiero/Abril 1990), pp. 96-107.

"Political Crafting of Democratic Consolidation or Destruction: European and South American Comparisons," co-authored with Juan J. Linz, in Robert A. Pastor, eds., Democracy in the Americas: Stopping the Pendulum (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1989), pp. 41-61.

"Las Prerrogativas de los Militares en los Nuevos Regmenes Democráticos," Desarrollo Econmico (Buenos Aires), Vol. 27, No.108 (enero-marzo 1988), pp. 479-504. Reprinted in Sntesis (Madrid), 11 (mayo-agosto 1990), pp. 51-76.

"The Last Days of Pinochet?" The New York Review of Books, Vol. XXXV., June 2, 1988, pp.32-35.

"Paths Toward Redemocratization: Theoretical and Comparative Considerations," in Guillermo O'Donnell, Philippe C. Schmitter, Laurence Whitehead, eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), pp. 64-84, 170-174. Reprinted in Roy C. Macridis and Bernard E. Brown, eds., Comparative Politics: Notes and Readings, 7th Edition (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole Publishing, 1990), pp. 143-154.

"State Power and the Strength of Civil Society in the Southern Cone of Latin America," in Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer and Theda Skocpol, eds., Bringing the State Back In (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 317-343. Spanish translation by Editorial Patria of Mexico.

Author of the Introduction to With Friends Like These: The Americas Watch Report on Human Rights and U.S. Policy in Latin America. Edited by Cynthia Brown. Preface by Jacobo Timmerman (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985).

"O Que Estão Pensando os Militares?" Novos Estudos CEBRAP, Vol.2, No.2, (Julho 1983), pp. 2-7.

"Cuba, the U.S., and the Central American Mess," co-authored with Seweryn Bialer in The New York Review of Books, Vol. XXIX, No.9, May 27, 1982, pp. 17-20.

"The U.S. and Latin America: Vital Interests and the Instruments of Power," Foreign Affairs, Vol.58, No.3, (1979), pp. 659-693. Reprinted in William P. Bundy, ed., America and the World, 1979 (Pergamon Press, 1980), and in Jennie K. Lincoln and Elizabeth G. Ferris, eds., Latin America's Foreign Policies: Global and Regional Dimensions (Sage Publications, 1981).

"Political Leadership and Regime Breakdown: Brazil" in Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan, eds., The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), pp. 110-137. Reprinted in John J. Johnson, Peter J. Bakewell and Meredith D. Dodge, eds., Readings in Latin American History, Vol.11, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1985), pp. 125-152.

"Inclusionary and Exclusionary Military Responses to Radicalism with Special Attention to Peru," in Seweryn Bialer, ed., Preface by Zbigniew Brzezinski, Radicalism in the Contemporary Age, Vol. 3 (Boulder: Westview Press, 1977), pp. 221-239; 344-350.

"The Concept of Generations in Military Institutions: Brazil and Peru Compared," in R.J. Samuels, ed., Preface by Myron Weiner and Samuel P. Huntington, Political Generations and Political Development (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1977), pp. 57-70.

"From Counterinsurgency to Counterintelligence: Commentary on Saxe-Fernndez" in Julio Cotler and Richard Fagen, eds., Latin America and the United States: The Changing Political Realities (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 361-367. A Spanish translation of the book published simultaneously by Amorrortu Editores (Buenos Aires).

"The New Professionalism of Internal Warfare and Military Role Expansion," in Alfred Stepan, ed., Authoritarian Brazil (Yale University Press, 1973), pp. 47-68. Reprinted in Amos Permutter and Valerie Plave Bennet, eds., The Political Influence of the Military: A Comparative Reader (Yale University Press, 1980), and in Abraham F. Lowenthal and J. Samuel Fitch, eds., Armies and Politics in Latin America (New York: Holmes and Meier, Revised Edition, 1986).

"The Continuing Problem of Brazilian Integration: The Monarchical and Republican Periods," in Frederick B. Pike, ed., Latin American History: Select Problems -- Identity, Integration and Nationhood (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1969), pp. 259-296.

"Political Development Theory: The Latin American Experience," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. XX, No.2 (1966), pp. 223-234. Reprinted in John D. Martz, ed., The Dynamics of Change in Latin American Politics (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Second Revised Edition, 1971).

"Discussion: The Middle Class in Latin America," New Politics: A Journal of Socialist Thought, Vol.IV, No.2 (Spring, 1965), pp. 87-90.

"The Role of Perception in U.S.-Cuban Relations," Selected Essays in Foreign Policy, (International Fellows of Columbia University, 1964-1965), Vol. III, pp. 9-32.


“The Recurrent Temptation to Abdicate to the Military in Egypt” on the Freedom House blog, Freedom at Issue, (13 January 2012).

“Counter-Revolution or Democratic Transition?” on Social Science Research Council’s  The Immanent Frame blog (17 December 2011).

"Multi-Nationalism, Democracy and 'Asymmetrical Federalism' (With Some Tentative Comparative Reflections on Burma)", International Center for Transitional Justice, paper prepared for a small mediation group to be lead by Nelson Mandela. February, 2002.

"Crafting a Democratic Police: Tasks in the Five Arenas, Civil Society, Political Society, Rule of Law, Usable State, and Economic Society," with Arthur Costa, Proceedings of the International Conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation, published in Spanish, French and English. Conference sponsored by FRIDE and The Gorbachev Foundation in Madrid 2001. The plenary conference was attended by approximately 20 heads of government and heads of state.

"Alternative Models of Higher Education," in Asa Briggs, ed., The Future of Europe, European Union, 1996.

Contributor to Symposium convened by the President-elect of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, O Brasil e As Tendências Econmicas e Políticas Contemporneas, (Brasília, FUNAG, 1995), pp. 26-29.

"Corruption in South America," in Duc V. Trang, ed., Corruption and Democracy: Political Institutions, Processes and Corruption in Transition States in East-Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union, (Budapest: Institute for Constitutional and Legislative Policy, 1994), pp. 29-32.

Contribution to Plenary Session, "Investing in Human Capital," Seventy-fifth Anniversary Forum, Institute of International Education, New York, October, 1994, pp. 29-31.

Contributor to Plenary Session, "A World to Make: Development in Perspective," Daedalus. Issues as Vol. 118, No.1, of the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Winter, 1989).

Chile: Human Rights and the Plebiscite (An Interim Report) with Stephan Rickard and Cynthia Brown (New York: Americas Watch, April 1988), a 255-page report.

"Decisão do Citi Abre Novas Possibilidades de Negociar a Dvida," co-authored with Edmar Bacha, Economia em Perspectiva, No.36 (Julho 1987), pp. 2-4.

"War on the People," review of human rights reports from Argentina and Brazil, The New York Times Book Review, Nov. 23, 1986. 

"Mexico Deserves Full U.S. Attention," The New York Times, Op-Ed Page, June 17, 1986.

"On Toward Brazilian Democracy," The New York Times, Op-Ed Page, Dec. 8, 1985.

"Dispatching the Marines," review of Walter LaFeber's Inevitable Revolutions, The New York Times Book Review, Nov. 6, 1983.

"Sharing Brazil's Economic Woe," The New York Times, Op-Ed Page, Dec. 8, 1982.