Cascade animation #2

The following pages depict the evolution of a simulated major cascading failure of the Eastern Interconnect, one of three large-scale transmission grids in the United States, with tens of thousands buses (nodes) and lines (arcs).  The cascade is started by disabling several major lines in a simulated "contingency". 

We evaluate a cascade according to three criteria:
We study two cases of the cascade.  In one case the cascade is uncontrolled, that is to say, no action is taken and the cascade is allowed to run its course. In the second case the cascade is governed by an affine, adaptive load-shedding control.  The control is constrained in two ways:
Background material is found in this report (a short version, here).   This work was previously funded by DOE grant DE-SC000267 and is now funded by DTRA grant HDTRA1-13-1-0021.

The uncontrolled cascade becomes stable in the 25th round with a yield of approximately 60% and 5559 outaged lines. 
The control we consider in these pages is approximately optimal subject to the above constraints.  It sheds load in rounds 1 and 4 only; it achieves stability at the 4th round with a yield of approximately 75% and 11 outaged lines.

The images shown display the 737 most significant buses, and the lines connecting them.  The lines are rendered using the following color scheme:
The cascade starts here.

(for a different cascade, see 
this page).