The History of Visual Culture in Meiji-Taisho Japan


FOR CREDIT: Kathy Chiong, Nicole Cohen, Ananda Martin, Ken Oshima, Kerry Ross, Masako Shinn, Aynslee Wells, Leila Wice

AUDITORS: Ellen Conant, Yukio Lippitt, Amanda Stinchecum, Sarah Thal

#1. January 29: WHAT IS VISUAL CULTURE? The Concept and Its Uses for Historians of Modern Japan


A set of the Meiji Taishô zushi (17 vols, Chikuma shobô, 1978-80) has been placed on the Smith seminar shelf for your perusal. This serves as a basic compendium of raw materials for Meiji-Taisho visual culture, so spend some time looking through it closely. Think about the ways in which historians might be able to use the kinds of visual materials presented here. Also think about what kind of things are not shown in these volumes that we should be thinking about.


After you've done your looking, please write out some of your thoughts on email and send it to the whole group by midnight Monday (Jan. 26).
 READINGS: These six items are all on the Smith shelf as of 4 pm Friday, except for #1, the Martin Jay essay, which will be provided by the end of the day on Monday.

Martin Jay, "Scopic Regimes of Modernity," in Hal Foster, ed., Vision and Visuality (Dia Art Foundation Discussions in Contemporary Culture, Number 2; Seattle: Bay Press, 1988), pp. 3-23.

"Cultural Studies," in Michael Groden and Martins Kreiswirth, eds., The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), pp. 176-82.

"Introduction," in Norman Bryson, Michael Ann Holly, and Keith Moxey, Visual Culture: Images and Interpretations (University Press of New England, 1994), pp. xv-xxix.

Chris Jenks, "The Centrality of the Eye in Western Culture: An Introduction," Visual Culture (Routledge, 1995), pp. 1-25.

"Visual Culture Questionnaire," October, no. 77 (Summer 1996), pp. 25-70.

Jonathan Crary, "Modernity and the Dispersal of Perception," manuscript of talk presented at Columbia GSAP, spring 1998.


Write a one-page (single-spaced) paper on your own personal conception of the scope and themes of a "history of visual culture" in modern Japan. Try to provide a concise summary on the meanings that "visual culture" seems to have come to encompass in the readings, making specific reference to at least one essay in each of the two anthologies entitled Visual Culture, of which copies will be available on the Smith shelf. But in the end, you should feel free to craft your own redefinition of the term for your own uses. Bring enough copies to class to distribute to everyone.

#2. February 5: The Nishiki-e Print from Bakumatsu to Meiji .


Henry Smith, "World Without Walls: Kuwagata Keisai's Panoramic Vision of Japan," in Bernstein and Fukui, eds., Japan and the World.

Julia Meech, The World of the Meiji Print (Weatherhill, 1986).

Henry Smith, Kiyochika: Artist of Meiji Japan (Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1989).


Bakumatsu-Meiji no rekishi, 12 vols. (Kodansha, 1977-78). Call no. 210.68 K84


The assignment for this week is the close study of a single woodblock print. Ideally, we should be working with original prints, but this creates logistical problems and greatly limits the range of materials, so we will rely instead on the prints reproduced in Bakumatsu-Meiji no rekishi. Each member of the class should choose a single print for intensive study and a report in class. It is obviously preferable to choose a print that seems to offer some particular challenge, either in terms of a text within the picture or because of perplexing pictorial content. Pay close attention to every part of the print, studying and deciphering the various seals, translating the title, and describing the content. But the exercise is ultimately one of interpretation: what can you say about the historical place of the print you have chosen. Write up your report in a paper of about four pages, to be read aloud in class (no need to make copies).

Vol. 1-10 of Bakumatsu-Meiji no rekishi will be placed on the Smith shelf. Please inform me by Sunday night of the print you have chosen, and I will have a slide made on it for projection in class. NOTE: If you have access to an actual print you can bring to class, or want to choose a reproduction from another source, that is fine too, but to have a slide of a reproduction, I need to have the source.

The reading assignment is simply for background, with the Smith article as an example of an extended discussion of a single print.

#3. Feb. 12: The Arrival of Photography in Japan

GENERAL EUROPEAN BACKGROUND. The following items present different perspectives on the origins and nature of photography in Europe. I have made two of these optional, but would urge you at least to skim them for the main ideas.

Alan Trachtenberg, ed., Classic Essays on Photography (New Haven: Leete's Island Books, 1980), pp.vii-xiii, 3-38, 199-216, 287-294 (introduction and essays by Niepce, Daguerre, Talbot, Poe, Benjamin, Damisch, and Berger). XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

OPTIONAL: Peter Galassi, Before Photography: Painting and the Invention of Photography (The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1981), pp. 11-31. BOOK ON SHELF (HS copy)

OPTIONAL: Terence Wright, "Photography: Theories of Realism and Convention," in Elizabeth Edwards, ed., Anthropology and Photography, 1860-1920 (Yale Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 18-31. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

EARLY PHOTOGRAPHY IN JAPAN. Here we read an older but still important essay by John Dower, the only American historian of Japan to have taken the history of photography seriously, plus the catalogue of an exhibition held just one year ago at the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography.

John Dower, "Ways of Seeing, Ways of Remembering: The Photography of Prewar Japan," in A Century of Japanese Photography, pp. 3-9 [we will read more of the essay later: you might want to read ahead right now]. BOOK ON SHELF (HS copy)

Tokyo-to Shashin Bijutsukan [Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography], Shashin torai no koro (exhibition catalog, 1997). BOOK ON SHELF (HS copy), plus xerox masters of English text. Conveniently, this catalog provides English translations of all the articles--although they are often awkward and sometimes inaccurate, so you should turn to the Japanese if you are confused. EVERYONE READ pp. 10-11 (general introduction by Miki Tamon) and 163-168 (commentary by Yokoe Fuminori on the two overview sections of the catalog, pp. 17-47 [figs. 1-54] and pp. 57-80 [figs. 55-105].

IN ADDITION, I would like to ask as follows for brief individual reports on the three individual photographers that are covered in the remaining sections of the catalog:

AYNSLEE: Motoyasu Hiroshi, "Ono Benkichi and Photography in the Kaga Domain," pp. 169-172. SEE CATALOG, pp. 68-69 [figs. 80-83]

NICOLE: Saitô Takio, "Shimooka Renjô," pp. 173-177. SEE CATALOG, pp. 89-95 [figs. 106-120]

KATHY: Kinoshita Naoyuki, "Shima Kakoku," pp. 178-181. SEE CATALOG, pp. 101-116 [figs. 121-179]

MASAKO: Yokoe Fuminori, "Yokoyama Matsusaburô," pp. 182-183. SEE CATALOG, pp. 121-144 [figs. 180-228]
TOURIST PHOTOS FOR A WESTERN AUDIENCE. These are two of several similar books that have appeared, often showing the same photographs. The Winkel text is the most responsible in terms of scholarship, so read through it quickly. But above all, look at the photos.

Margarita Winkel, Souvenirs from Japan: Japanese Photography at the Turn of the Century (London: Bamboo Publishing, 1991), pp. 21-38 plus photographs.

Terry Bennett, Early Japanese Images (Tuttle, 1996). Look at pictures only, referring to the notes on pp. 137-44 for more details.

Choose three photographs from any of the above books that you find particularly provocative, and write down on a single sheet of paper some notes about exactly what you find of interest. I will ask in class for some explications of your choices, and would like you to hand in these sheets at the end of class.

#4. Feb. 19: The New Art History of Meiji Japan


Kitazawa Noriaki, "Bijutsu no Meiji 20-nendai--Seido, seiji, kôgyô," in Kaiga no Meiji: Kindai kokka to imajineeshon (Mainichi shinbunsha, 1996), pp. 111-115. COPY ON RESERVE SHELF, together with xerox masters of relevant pages.

Satô Dôshin, "Umoreta 'Eikô'," in ibid., pp. 121-125.

FOR THOSE AT THE 3rd OR 4th YEAR LEVEL OF JAPANESE, YOU MAY SUBSTITUTE THE TWO ABOVE WITH: Satô Dôshin, 'Nihon bijutsu' tanjô--Kindai Nihon no 'kotoba' to senryaku (Kôdansha, Mechie 92, 1996), pp. 5-10.


Masako on Satô Dôshin's ideas (in 'Nihon bijutsu' tanjô).

Kio on Kinoshita Naoyuki's ideas (in Bijutsu to iu misemono and Shashin garon).
#5. February 26: Photographs as Portraits of Ordinary People


Alan Trachtenberg, "Likeness as Identity: Reflections on the Daguerrean Mystique," in Graham Clarke, ed., The Portrait in Photography (Reaktion Books, 1992), pp. 173-192. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

John Tagg, "A Democracy of the Image: Photographic Portraiture and Commodity Production," in The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories (University of Minnesota Press, 1993 [1988]), pp. 34-59. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

Selections from Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900 (The Kent State University Press, 1995), pp. ix-xix. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF. The book itself is also on the shelf: please browse through some of the photos and comments; those with post-its are ones that Nicole found interesting.


The Maruzen Meiji Microfilm includes a pamphlet that appears to be the first printed guide in Japanese for those wishing to have their picture taken. The main text is only about 15 pages long, so I suggest that we divide it up and translate the entire work into English. The work is Matsuzaki Shinji, [Shashin hitsuyô] Shakyaku no kokoroe (1886). Assignments will be made in class; if eight people join in, it will mean two pages per person. Simply bring the completed text to class, and prepare to report on the most interesting aspects of the section assigned you. No need for multiple copies at this stage; these will all be collated and distributed later in uniform format. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.


The main attraction this week will be a visit by Mr. Charles Schwartz to show us selected items from his collection of Bakumatsu-Meiji ambrotypes. Photos of the ambrotypes to be shown will be placed on the reserve shelf; most are color slides (which you can see with a viewer that will also be placed on the shelf), and a few are black-and-white photos. Please study these closely and WRITE OUT on a single sheet a list of preliminary questions and observations about these photos and how they might be approached historically.

#6. March 5: Preservation, Collecting, and Early Exhibitions


Yoshimizu Tsuneo, "The Shôsôin: An Open and Shut Case," Asian Cultural Studies, 17 (March 1989), pp. 15-42 (esp. P. 37 ff on modern history). XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

Tôkyô Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan, Me de miru 120-nen (Exhibition catalog, 1992), pp. 5-34 ("Jinshin kensa"). This consists of mostly pictures, plus short summaries of key developments in the early 1870s: two exhibitions, the first museum, and the 1872 survey. COPY OF BOOK ON RESERVE SHELF.

P. F. Kornicki, "Public Display and Changing Values: Early Meiji Exhibitions and Their Precursors," Monumenta Nipponica, 49/2 (Summer 1994), pp. 167-196. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

Christine M. E. Guth, "Kokuhô: From Dynastic to Artistic Treasure," Cahiers d'Extrème-Asie, 9 (1996-97), pp. 313-322. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

Christine Guth, Art, Tea, and Industry: Masuda Takashi and the Mitsui Circle (Princeton University Press, 1993), chs. 3-6 (pp. 72-195). A copy of the whole book will be placed on the shelf, plus a set of xerox copies of the assigned pages.

Entries for "National Treasures" and "Cultural Properties Law," from Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan (XEROX COPY ON SHELF).


Warren I. Cohen, East Asian Art and American Culture (Columbia UP, 1992), chs. 1-2 (pp. 1-73). COPY OF BOOK PLUS SET OF XEROX MASTERS ON RESERVE SHELF.

#7. March 12: Expositions and the Architecture of Display


Paul Greenhalgh, Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions, and Worlds Fairs, 1851-1939 (Manchester University Press, 1988), Read Introduction and Chapters 1-2 (pp. 1-50) and ch. 4 (pp. 82-111), and skim through the rest of the book in accord with your interests. One copy of the book will be on the shelf.

Ellen Conant, "Refractions of the Rising Sun: Japan's Participation in International Exhibitions, 1862-1910," in Tomoko Sato and Toshio Watanabe, eds., Japan and Britain: An Aesthetic Dialogue, 1850-1930 (London: Lund Humphries, 1991), pp. 79-92.

Yoshimi Shun'ya, "Industrial Expositions in Modern Japan: A Gauge of the Changing City," paper presented at AAS, Los Angeles, March 1993.

Neil Harris, "All the World a Melting Pot? Japan at American Fairs, 1876-1904." In Akira Iriye, ed., Mutual Images--Essays in American-Japanese Relations (Harvard University Press, 1975), pp. 24-54 plus endnotes.


Yamaguchi, Masao, "The Poetics of Exhibition in Japanese Culture," in Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine, eds., Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), pp. 57-67.

Yoshimi Shun'ya, Hakurankai no seijigaku--Manazashi no kindai (Chûkô shinsho, 1992), ch. 3: "Bunmei kaika to hakurankai" (pp. 107-144). This offers a much fuller version of Yoshimi's AAS paper above, and a useful summary account of the history of exhibitions in Meiji Japan.

#8. March 25: The Invention of Nihonga and Pan-Asianism in Art

REMINDER: This session will meet on Wednesday, March 25, from 6-8 pm, in IAB 918 (Lounge of East Asian Institute).


John M. Rosenfield, "Western-Style Painting in the Early Meiji Period and Its Critics," in Donald Shively, ed., Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture, pp. 181-219. ON REGULAR RESERVE (not Smith shelf), DS822.25 .T7.

Ellen Conant, Nihonga--Transcending the Past: Japanese-Style Painting, 1868-1968 (The Saint Louis Art Museum and The Japan Foundation, 1994), pp. 12-44, 72-74. ON REGULAR RESERVE (not Smith shelf), ND1054.5 .C66 1995g. A xerox master set of the assigned pages is on the Smith shelf, but you are urged to look through the images of the exhibition catalog itself.


Karatani Kôjin, "Japan as Museum: Okakura Tenshin and Ernest Fenollosa," in Alexandra Munroe, ed., Japanese Art After 1945: Scream Against the Sky (Harry Abrams, 1994), pp. 33-39. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

Kakuzo Okakura, The Ideals of the East--with Special Reference to the Art of Japan (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1905), "Introduction," "The Range of Ideals," "The Primitive Art of Japan," "The Meiji Period," and "The Vista" (pp. 1-22, 205-244). BOOK ON SMITH SHELF.

Miriam Wattles, "The 1909 Ryt and the Aesthetics of Affectivity," Art Journal, 55/3 (Fall 1996), pp. 48-56. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF.

Narihara, Yuki, "On Meiji and Taish Period Nihonga Depicting the Life of the Buddha," paper presented at JAWS workshop, March 16, 1998. XEROX COPY ON RESERVE SHELF, along with the slides used in the presentation.


We will focus on five particular Nihonga paintings of the Meiji period. One is Yokoyama Taikan's "Ryûtô" of 1909 that Miriam Wattles discusses in the assigned article. The other four are as follows; they appear in two Japanese books that have been left on the shelf. Please take a close look at each of these four works, and read as much of the commentary as you can. Individuals have been assigned to prepare a brief report on the painting in question. In class, slides of each will be available. (A list of phone numbers has been appended below to enable those of you working in pairs to get in touch with one another.)

In Kaiga no Meiji:

Suzuki Matsunen, "Gunsen zu byôbu," 1895 (pl. 48-49):  REPORT: Kathy and Masako

Matsumoto Fûko, "Môko shûrai, Heiteikan zu byôbu," 1895 (pl. 54-55). REPORT: Nicole and Kerry

In Nihon no kindai bijutsu, 2: Nihonga no tanjô: Yokoyama Taikan, "Kutsugen," 1898 (pp. 81-89). See also Rosenfield article above. REPORT: Aynslee and Ken

Shimomura Kanzan, "Jai," 1898 (pp. 113-121).  REPORT: Ananda

#9. April 2: The Visual Culture of Tourism and Pilgrimage


Satô Kenji, Fûkei no seisan, fûkei no kaihô (Kôdansha sensho Mechie, 1994), Chs. 1 ("Ehagaki oboegaki," pp. 16-71) and 5 ("Gengo/kôtsû/fukusei geijutsu," pp. 184-204). [Responsibilities for this will be parcelled out.] LIBRARY COPY IS ON RESERVE SHELF.

Karatani Kôjin, "The Discovery of Landscape," in The Origins of Modern Japanese Literature (Duke UP, 1993), pp. 11-44. COPY ON REGULAR RESERVE: PL726.6 .K2813 1993

Steven Ericson, The Sound of the Whistle: Railroads and the State in Meiji Japan (Harvard, 1996), pp. 53-94. LIBRARY COPY IS ON RESERVE SHELF.


Chôshi Kotohira, vol. 5, pp. 14-19, 46-59, 64-65, [ON RESERVE SHELF] These are visual materials about Kompira that are relevant to Sarah Thal's work. She herself is thinking about how to use these in her thesis on the Meiji history of the Kompira pilgrimage, and would appreciate thoughts and queries on the matter.

Nihon hyakkei to miyagehin: Edo-Meiji, 4 vols. (Heibonsha, 1980). [ON RESERVE SHELF] Pick ONE meisho from the dozens introduced in these four volumes, and write down your thoughts on ) the thinking and circumstances that appear to have gone into the assembly of material presented, and 2) the uses that a historian might make of visual material of this sort: what questions do they pose, what questions might they answer, and what more would be need to know in either case?
#10. April 9: Moving Images: From Panorama to Cinema


Stephan Oettermann, The Panorama: History of a Mass Medium (NY: Zone Books, 1997), "Introduction: The Origins of the Panorama" (pp. 5-47). One copy may be found in carrell 804A of Avery Library, and another from Barnard will be on the Starr shelf.

H. Smith, "Chronology of Panoramas and War Depiction in Japan," plus notes on Yoshida Mitsukuni, "Sensô to shikaku media," Jinbun gakuhô, no. 53 (March 1982), pp. 143-155. COPY ON SHELF. [These materials will also be provided in electronic form by email.]

Koyama Shôtarô, "Panorama no kôzô," Meika dansô 9, May 20, 1896; reprinted in Aoki Shigeru, ed., Meiji yôga shiry: Kaisô hen (Chûô Kôron Bijutsu Shuppan, 1985), pp. 33-39. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

OPTIONAL: Kinoshita Naoyuki, "Panorama," in Bijutsu to iu misemono: Aburae-jaya no jidai (Heibonsha, 1993), pp. 161-196. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.


Komatsu, Hiroshi, "Some Characteristics of Japanese Cinema Before World War I," in Arthur Nolletti, Jr., and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema: Authorship, Genre, History (Indiana Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 229-258. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Komatsu, Hiroshi, "The Lumiere Cinematographe and the Production of the Cinema in Japan in the Earliest Period," Film History, 8/4 (1996), pp. 431-8. XEROX COPY ON SHELF

Peter High, "The Dawn of Cinema in Japan," Journal of Contemporary History, 19/1 (January 1984), pp. 23-57. XEROX COPY ON SHELF

OPTIONAL: Komatsu, Hiroshi, "Japan: Before the Great Kanto Earthquake," in Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, ed., Oxford History of World Cinema (Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 177-182. XEROX COPY ON SHELF

OPTIONAL: Joanne Bernardi, "Norimasa Kaeriyama and The Glory of Life," Film History, vol. 9 (1997), pp. 365-376. XEROX COPY ON SHELF

OPTIONAL: Lisa Spalding, "Period Films in the Prewar Era," in Arthur Nolletti, Jr., and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema: Authorship, Genre, History (Indiana Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 131-134. LIBRARY COPY ON SHELF.

OPTIONAL: J. L. Anderson, "Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contexturalizing the Texts," in Arthur Nolletti, Jr., and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema: Authorship, Genre, History (Indiana Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 259-311. LIBRARY COPY ON SHELF.
#11. April 16: PRESENTATIONS

Aynslee Wells will give a trial run of her April 23 presentation for the Barnard Centennial Scholars Program on "Through the Looking Glass: French Encounters with Imagined Japans." The other members of the seminar are asked to prepare brief presentations of their paper topics for the course.

#12. April 23: Constructing a Modern Architecture in Meiji-Taisho Japan

DOCUMENTS (one in translation, two in Japanese):

Itô Chûta, "Kenchiku tetsugaku," in Fujimori Terunobu, ed., Toshi/ kenchiku, Nihon kindai shisô taikei (Iwanami Shoten, 1990), pp. 339-399. English translation by Yasushi Zenno. COPY ON SHELF.

Tatsuno Kingo. "Kenchiku shinpo no yurai" (July 1890 lecture), in Toshi/kenchiku,, pp. 400-405. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Horiguchi, Sutemi, "Geijutsu to kenchiku to no kansô" (1921), reprinted in Fujii Shichirô and Yamaguchi Hiroshi, eds., Nihon kenchiku sengen bunshô (Shôkokusha, 1973), pp. 147-155. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Fujioka Hiroyasu, "The Search for 'Japanese Architecture' in Modern Ages," The Japan Foundation Newsletter, 15/3 (Dec. 1987). XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Zenno Yasushi, "The Virtue of Simplicity: Japan's Modernity and Architecture." XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Ken Oshima, "Hijiribashi: Spanning Time and Crossing Place." XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Josiah Conder: A Victorian Architect in Japan, exhibition catalogue (Tokyo Station Gallery, 1997), English summaries: Fujimori Terunobu, "Josiah Conder and Japan," pp.17-21; J. Mordaunt Crook, "Josiah Conder in England: Education, Training and Background," pp. 26-28; and Kawanabe Kusumi, "Josiah Conder and Kawanabe Kyosai," pp. 61-64. XEROX COPY ON SHELF. A copy of the catalogue itself will also be on the shelf.

OPTIONAL: Cherie Wendelken, "The Tectonics of Japanese Style: Architect and Carpenter in the Late Meiji Period," Art Journal, Fall 1996 Vol.55 No.3, pp. 28-37. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

A CASE STUDY: TOKYO STATION (Tatsuno Kingo, 1914)

The following materials concerning Tokyo Station of 1914 will be placed on the reserve shelf. Using as many of these as you are can, write a short evaluation of this important structure, based on whatever criteria or perspectives you feel are appropriate, which might include its relation to the urban context, its role as a symbol for Meiji Japan, its function as a railway station, its architectural expression based on brick, or its relation to the writings of the architect, Tatsuno Kingo.

Dallas Finn, Meiji Revisited: The Sites of Victorian Japan (Weatherhill, 1995), pp. 242-251. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Tôkyô-eki to Tatsuno Kingo: Ekisha no naritachi to Tôkyô-eki no dekiru made, exhibition catalogue (Tokyo Station Gallery, 1990). BOOK ON SHELF.

Akarenga no Tôkyô eki o ai suru shimin no kai, ed., Akarenga no Tôkyô-eki (Iwanami Booklet no. 258, 1992). BOOK ON SHELF.

Tôkyô-eki to Renga (Higashi Nihon Ryokyaku Tetsudô Kabushiki Kaisha, 1988). BOOK ON SHELF.

#13. April 30: The Birth of "Modern" Photography in the 1920s

General Background on Art Photography

Iizawa Kôtarô, "Nihon no 'Geijutsu shashin' ga hajimatta," Kamera no omoshiro monogatari, pp. 48-53. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Okatsuka, Akiko, "Consciousness and Expression of the Modern," The Founding and Development of Modern Photography in Japan, exhibition catalogue (Tokyo Metropolitan Culture Foundation, 1995), pp. 18-26. BOOK AND XEROX COPY ON SHELF.

Silverberg, Miriam, "Song II: The Reproduction of Taisho Culture," ch. 4, Changing Song: The Marxist Manifestos of Nakano Shigeharu (Princeton University Press, 1990), pps. 101-140. XEROX COPY ON SHELF

RE-READ: John Dower, "Ways of Seeing, Ways of Remembering: The Photography of Prewar Japan," in A Century of Japanese Photography, pp. 9-20 BOOK ON SHELF (HS copy)

RE-READ: Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Alan Trachtenberg, ed., Classic Essays on Photography (New Haven: Leete's Island Books, 1980), pp. 199-216.

Asahi Kamera: The Golden Age of Amateur Art

Asahi Shinbun Publishing Co., The First International Photographic Salon of Japan, 1927 (Asahi Shinbun Sha, 1927). Look through the photographs shown at this salon. ON SHELF.

Short articles from the early issues of Asahi Kamera (1926--), reprinted in Asahi Kamera: Zôkan 4: Asahi Kamera hanseiki no ayumi (April 1973): XEROX COPIES ON SHELF

Arata Uichiro, "Saikin ryûkô shi kitatta kôka kencho na kôkoku shashin," Asahi Kamera, July 1928. REPORT: Ananda

2) Fukuhara Shinzô, "Shashin-dô," Asahi Kamera, no. 1, 1926, and "Shashin geijutsu no honshitsu to sono shimei," April 1928. REPORT: Kiyo

Murayama Tomoyoshi, "Shashin no atarashii kin," Asahi Kamera, May 1926.


4) Nakata Sadanosuke, "Shashin geijutsu no shin-keikô," Asahi Kamera (October 1926. REPORT: Nicole and Kathy
Nakayama Iwata and the Transition from Pictorialism to Modernism

Ashiya-shi Bijutsu Hakubutsukan and Shibuya Kuritsu Shôtô Bijutsukan, eds., Modan fotogurafi: Nakayama Iwata, exhibition catalogue (1996). Look at the photographs and read what you can of the text (no English summaries, unfortunately). BOOK ON SHELF.

Iizawa Kôtarô, "Maboroshi no Tôkyô bijutsu gakkô shashin ka: Nakayama Iwata" Nihon shashinshi wo aruku (Shinchôsha, 1992), pp. 147-158. XEROX COPY ON SHELF.