Associate Professor, Columbia University
June 2013: Experimental solar water pump in Patna, Bihar, India. March 2013: Twaweza offices in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Knowing is not enough, we must apply. Willing is not enough, we must do. — Bruce Lee

This page features my academic publications and research. The articles are organized by topic:

Articles about international environmental issues are listed under environmental and energy politics. If you are interested in an article that is not online, please contact me directly.


Cutting the Gordian Knot of Economic Reform: When and How International Institutions Help. 2014. Oxford University Press. [With Leonardo Baccini]

Renewables: The Politics of a Global Energy Transition. Forthcoming. MIT Press. [With Michaël Aklin]

Book Manuscripts under Contract

Targeting Big Polluters: Understanding Activism against the Fossil Fuel Industry. [With Andrew Cheon, under contract with Greenleaf Publishing]

The International Politics of Democratic Transitions: How International Organizations Assist New Democracies. [With Paul Poast, under contract with Chicago University Press]

Global Environmental Politics in the Twenty-First Century. [under advance contract with Princeton University Press]

Completed Book Manuscripts

Escaping the Energy Poverty Trap: When and How Governments Power the Lives of the Poor. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]

Articles on Environmental and Energy Politics

The Polarization of American Environmental Policy: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Senate and House Votes, 1971-2013. Forthcoming. Review of Policy Research [With Sung Eun Kim]

Household Energy Access and Expenditure in Developing Countries: Evidence from India, 1987-2010. Forthcoming. Energy for Sustainable Development [With Meir Alkon and S.P. Harish]

Policy Reform and the Problem of Private Investment: Evidence from the Power Sector. Forthcoming. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management [With Joonseok Yang]

Removing Fuel Subsidies: How Can International Organizations Support National Policy Reforms? Forthcoming. International Environmental Agreements [With Joel E. Smith]

The Business of Distributed Solar Power: A Comparative Case Study of Centralized Charging Stations and Solar Microgrids. Forthcoming. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment. [With Anthony Louis D'Agostino and Peter D. Lund]

Democracy, Autocracy, and the Urban Bias: Evidence from Petroleum Subsidies. Forthcoming. Political Studies. [With Sung Eun Kim]

Factors Affecting Household Satisfaction with Electricity Supply in Rural India. 2016. Nature Energy 1: 16048. [With Michaël Aklin, Chao-yo Cheng, Karthik Ganesan, and Abhishek Jain]

Rural Electrification and Groundwater Pumps in India: Evidence from the 1982-1999 Period. 2016. Resource and Energy Economics 45: 31-45. [With Michael G. Smith]

Unawareness and Indifference to Economic Reform among the Public: Evidence from India's Power Sector Reform. 2016. Economics of Governance 17 (3) [With Chao-yo Cheng]

Political Competition and Renewable Energy Transitions over Long Time Horizons: A Dynamic Approach. 2016. Ecological Economics 124: 175-184. [With Marion Dumas and James Rising]

Solar Power for Street Vendors? Problems with Centralized Charging Stations in Urban Markets. 2016. Habitat International 53: 228-236. [With David Szakonyi]

It's All About Political Incentives: Democracy and the Renewable Feed-In Tariff. 2016. Journal of Politics 78 (2): 603-619. [With Patrick Bayer]

Willingness to Pay for Solar Lanterns: Does the Trial Period Play a Role? 2016. Review of Policy Research 33 (3): 291-315. [With Milind Kandlikar and Semee Yoon]

Does Power Sector Deregulation Promote or Discourage Renewable Energy Policy? Evidence from the States, 1991-2012. 2016. Review of Policy Research 33 (1): 22-50. [With Sung Eun Kim and Joonseok Yang]

Support for Renewable Energy in China: A Survey Experiment with Internet Users. 2016. Journal of Cleaner Production 112 (5): 3750-3758. [With Dingding Chen and Chao-yo Cheng]

Solar Products for Poor Rural Communities as a Business: Lessons from a Successful Project in Uttar Pradesh, India. 2016. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 18 (2): 617-626. [With Semee Yoon]

Energy Poverty and Perceptions of Solar Power in Marginalized Communities: Survey Evidence from Uttar Pradesh, India. 2016. Renewable Energy 85: 534-539.

Electric Utilities and American Climate Policy: Lobbying by Expected Winners and Losers. 2016. Journal of Public Policy 36 (2): 251-275. [With Sung Eun Kim and Joonseok Yang]

Explaining Differences in Sub-National Patterns of Clean Technology Transfer to China and India. 2016. International Environmental Agreements 16 (2): 261-283. [With Patrick Bayer and Alice Xu]

Multilateral Energy Lending and Urban Bias in Autocracies: Promoting Fossil Fuels. 2016. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 21 (2): 167-190. [With Sung Eun Kim]

The Political Economy of Energy Access: Survey Evidence from India on State Intervention and Public Opinion. 2015. Energy Research and Social Science 10: 250-258. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]

Interests, Institutions, and Climate Policy: Explaining the Choice of Policy Instruments for the Energy Sector. 2016. Environmental Science and Policy 54: 52-63. [With Llewelyn Hughes]

All Policies Are Glocal: International Environmental Policymaking with Strategic Subnational Governments. 2015. British Journal of Political Science 45 (3): 559-582. [With Michael Bechtel]

Light for All? Evaluating Brazil's Rural Electrification Progress, 2000-2010. 2015. Energy Policy 86: 315-327. [With Tara Slough and Joonseok Yang]

Why Pick on Us? Environmental INGOs and State Shaming as a Strategic Substitute. 2015. Political Studies 63 (2): 353-372. [With Amanda M. Murdie]

Escaping Oil's Stranglehold: When Do States Invest in Energy Security? 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution. [With Andrew Cheon]

When International Organizations Bargain: Evidence from the Global Environment Facility. 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (6): 1074-1100. [With Patrick Bayer and Christopher Marcoux]

Instruments of Political Control: National Oil Companies, Oil Prices, and Petroleum Subsidies. 2015. Comparative Political Studies 48 (3): 370-402. [With Andrew Cheon and Maureen Lackner]

Socio-Economic Determinants of Charcoal Expenditures in Tanzania: Evidence from Panel Data. 2015. Energy Economics 49: 472-481. [With Anthony L. D'Agostino and Alice Xu]

Small and Beautiful? The Programme of Activities and the Least Developed Countries. 2015. Climate and Development 7 (2): 153-164. [With Patrick Bayer and Valerie Pinkerton]

Quantifying Slum Electrification in India and Explaining Local Variation. 2015. Energy 80: 203-212. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]

Solar Home Systems for Rural India: Survey Evidence on Awareness and Willingness to Pay from Uttar Pradesh. 2015. Energy for Sustainable Development 24: 70-78. [With Semee Yoon]

Energy Poverty among Urban Street Vendors in India: Evidence from Patna, Bihar. 2015. Energy for Sustainable Development 24: 44-49. [With David Szakonyi]

The International Renewable Energy Agency: A Success Story in Institutional Innovation? 2015. International Environmental Agreements 15 (2): 159-177. [With Thijs Van de Graaf]

Who Should Take the Garbage Out? Public Opinion on Waste Management in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2015. Habitat International 46: 111-118. [With Chao-yo Cheng]

Relative Deprivation and Energy Poverty: When Does Unequal Access to Electricity Cause Dissatisfaction? 2014. International Journal of Energy Research 38 (13): 1727-1740. [With Eugenie Dugoua]

The Global Spread of Environmental Ministries: Domestic-International Interactions. 2014. International Studies Quarterly 58 (4): 159-177. [With Michaël Aklin]

Who Benefits From Economic Reform? Firms and Distributive Politics. 2014. Journal of Politics 76 (3): 841-858. [With David Szakonyi]

Fuel Stacking in India: Changes in the Cooking and Lighting Mix, 1987-2010. 2014. Energy 76 (1): 306-317. [With Chao-yo Cheng]

Laissez Faire and the Clean Development Mechanism: Determinants of Project Implementation in Indian States, 2003-2011. 2014. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 16 (8): 1687-1701. [With Patrick Bayer and Alice Xu]

Information and Energy Policy Preferences: A Survey Experiment on Public Opinion about Electricity Pricing Reform in Rural India. 2014. Economics of Governance 15 (4): 305-327. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]

Who Blames Corruption for the Poor Enforcement of Environmental Laws? Survey Evidence From Brazil. 2014. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies 16 (3): 241-262. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]

Choosing International Organizations: When Do States and the World Bank Collaborate on Environmental Projects? 2014. Review of International Organizations 9 (4): 413-440. [With Patrick Bayer and Christopher Marcoux]

American Evangelicals and Domestic Versus International Climate Policy. 2014. Review of International Organizations 9 (4): 441-469. [With Stephen Chaudoin and David Thomas Smith]

Veto Players and the Value of Political Control: A Theory with Evidence From Energy Privatization. 2014. Comparative Political Studies 47 (10): 1384-1415. [With David Szakonyi]

The Effect of Feed-In Tariffs on Renewable Electricity Generation: An Instrumental Variables Approach. 2014. Environmental and Resource Economics 57 (3): 367-392. [Michael G. Smith]

Sinking Costs to Increase Participation: Technology Deployment Agreements Enhance Climate Cooperation. 2014. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies. 16 (3): 229-240.

Grid and Off-Grid Electrification: An Integrated Model with Applications to India. 2014. Energy for Sustainable Development 19: 66-71.

Early Adopters of Solar Panels in Developing Countries: Evidence from Tanzania. 2014. Review of Policy Research 31 (1): 17-37. [With Michael G. Smith]

Environmental Standards as a Strategy of International Technology Transfer. 2014 Environmental Science and Policy 38: 192-206. [With Eri Saikawa]

Perceptions of Scientific Dissent Undermine Public Support for Environmental Policy. 2014. Environmental Science and Policy 38: 173-177. [With Michaël Aklin]

Addressing Cross-Border Environmental Displacement: When Can International Treaties Help? 2014. International Environmental Agreements 14 (1): 25-46. [With Narayan Subramanian]

International Energy Funding: Who Funds Fossil Fuels, Who Funds Energy Access to the Poor? 2013. International Environmental Agreements 13 (4): 411-423. [With Sung Eun Kim]

How Do Competing Special Interests Influence Environmental Policy? The Case of Renewable Electricity in Industrialized Democracies, 1989-2007. 2013. Political Studies 61 (4): 874-897. [With Andrew Cheon]

Political Market Failure? The Effect of Government Unity on Energy Technology Policy in Industrialized Democracies. 2013. Technovation 33 (10-11): 333-344. [With Alexandra Cirone]

Debating Clean Energy: Frames, Counter Frames, and Audiences. 2013. Global Environmental Change 23 (5): 1225-1232. [With Michaël Aklin]

Leveraging Private Capital for Climate Mitigation: Evidence from the Clean Development Mechanism. 2013. Ecological Economics 96: 14-24. [With Patrick Bayer and Christopher Marcoux]

Electricity Sector Reform and Generators as a Source of Backup Power: The Case of India. 2013. Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (5): 477-481. [With David Szakonyi]

Understanding Environmental Policy Preferences: New Evidence from Brazil. 2013. Ecological Economics 94: 28-36. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]

Non-Compliance by Design: Moribund Hard Law in International Institutions. 2013. Review of International Organizations 8 (2): 163-191. [With Christopher Marcoux]

When and How Can Advocacy Groups Promote New Technologies? Conditions and Strategies for Effectiveness. 2013. Journal of Public Policy 33 (3): 259-293. [With Sung Eun Kim]

Can Strategic Technology Deployment Improve Climate Cooperation? A Game-Theoretic Analysis. 2013. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 18 (6): 785-800.

Why Do Governments Subsidize Gasoline Consumption? An Empirical Analysis of Global Gasoline Prices, 2002-2009. 2013. Energy Policy 56: 382-390. [With Andrew Cheon and Maureen Lackner]

Who Uses the Clean Development Mechanism? An Empirical Analysis of Projects in Chinese Provinces. 2013. Global Environmental Change 23 (2): 512-521. [With Patrick Bayer and Jeremy Wallace]

Trade Sanctions in International Environmental Policy: Deterring or Encouraging Free Riding? 2013. Conflict Management and Peace Science 30 (4): 309-334. [With Alexandra Cirone]

Political Competition, Path Dependence, and the Strategy of Sustainable Energy Transitions. 2013. American Journal of Political Science 57 (3): 643-658. [With Michaël Aklin]

Promoting International Environmental Cooperation Through Unilateral Action: When Can Trade Sanctions Help? 2013. Global Environmental Politics 13 (2): 26-45.

Global Patterns of Renewable Energy Innovation, 1990-2009. 2013. Energy for Sustainable Development. 17 (3): 288-295. [With Patrick Bayer and Lindsay Dolan]

A Model of Dynamic Climate Governance: Dream Big, Win Small. 2013. International Environmental Agreements. 13 (2): 107-125.

External Sources of Clean Technology: Evidence from the Clean Development Mechanism. 2013. Review of International Organizations 8 (1): 81-109. [With Patrick Bayer]

Issue Linkage in Clean Technology Cooperation: For Better or Worse? 2013. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 15 (1): 147-155.

Why Has Public R&D on Alternatives to Fossil Fuels Decreased in Industrialized Countries? 2013. Environmental Science and Policy 25: 127-137. [With Michael G. Smith]

Geoengineering and Global Warming: A Strategic Perspective. 2012. International Environmental Agreements 12 (4): 375-389.

Legislative Fractionalization and Partisan Shifts to the Left Increase the Volatility of Public Energy R&D Expenditures. 2012. Energy Policy 46: 49-57. [With Leonardo Baccini]

Environmental Regulation in the Shadow of International Trade Law: A Principal-Agent Analysis. 2012. Strategic Behavior and the Environment 2 (3): 193-215.

Global Warming, Irreversibility, and Uncertainty: A Political Analysis. 2012. Global Environmental Politics 12 (4): 68-85.

Dynamics of Spatial Interdependence: The Contingent Effect of International Trade on Voluntary Environmental Standards. 2012. Environment and Planning C 30 (5): 871-890. [With Christopher Marcoux]

Intellectual Property Rights, Clean Technology, and Public Policy: A Strategic Analysis. 2012. Strategic Behavior and the Environment 2 (2): 173-191.

Technology Investment, Bargaining, and International Environmental Agreements. 2012. International Environmental Agreements 12 (2): 145-163.

Oil Prices and Energy Technology Innovation: An Empirical Analysis. 2012. Global Environmental Change 22 (2): 407-417. [With Andrew Cheon]

Strategic Problems in North-South Climate Finance: Creating Joint Gains for Donors and Recipients. 2012. Environmental Science and Policy 21 (1): 14-23.

How Do Electoral Competition and Special Interests Shape the Stringency of Renewable Energy Standards? 2012. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies. 14 (1): 23-34.

The Strategic Design of Technology Funds for Climate Cooperation: Generating Joint Gains. 2012. Environmental Science and Policy. 15 (1): 92-105.

Special Interests, Regulatory Quality, and the Pesticides Overload. 2011. Review of Policy Research. 28 (6): 585-612. [With Christopher Marcoux]

Frontrunners and Laggards: The Strategy of Environmental Regulation under Uncertainty. 2011. Environmental and Resource Economics. 50 (3): 325-346.

Can Unilateral Leadership Promote International Environmental Cooperation? 2011. International Interactions. 37 (3): 320-339.

Export Orientation and Domestic Electricity Generation: Effects on Energy Efficiency Innovation in Select Sectors. 2011. Energy Policy. 39 (9): 5638-5646.

A California Effect for International Externalities? 2011. International Interactions. 37 (2): 170-189.

Enforcing International Environmental Agreements: Technological Standards Can Help. 2010. Review of International Organizations. 5 (4): 475-496.

Explaining the Schwarzenegger Phenomenon: Local Frontrunners in Climate Policy. 2009. Global Environmental Politics 9 (3): 82-105.

Articles on International Cooperation and Institutions

Not Letting `Bad Apples' Spoil the Bunch: Democratization and Strict International Organization Accession Rules. Forthcoming. Review of International Organizations. [With Christodoulos Kaoutzanis and Paul Poast]

When Do International Economic Agreements Allow Countries to Pay to Breach? 2015. Review of International Organizations 10 (2): 231-264. [With Krzysztof J. Pelc]

Your Place or Mine? Institutional Capture and the Creation of Overlapping International Institutions. 2015. British Journal of Political Science 45 (4): 799-827. [With Thijs Van de Graaf]

Rising Regional Powers Meet the Global Leader: A Strategic Analysis of Influence Competition. 2015. International Political Science Review 36 (2): 214-234. [With Sung Eun Kim]

When is Good News About Pro-Cooperation Lobbies Good News About Cooperation? 2015. British Journal of Political Science 45 (2): 411-433. [With Stephen Chaudoin]

Picking Treaties, Picking Winners: International Treaty Negotiations and the Strategic Mobilization of Domestic Interests. 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (6): 1043-1073. [With Joseph M. Brown]

The Domestic Sources of Donor Credibility: When and How Can Domestic Interest Groups Improve the Effectiveness of Threats and Promises? 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (2): 283-309. [With Man Yan Eng]

How International Organizations Support Democratization: Preventing Authoritarian Reversals or Promoting Consolidation? 2015. World Politics 67 (1): 72-113. [With Paul Poast]

Profitable Participation: Technology Innovation as an Influence on the Ratification of Regulatory Treaties. 2014. British Journal of Political Science 44 (4): 903-936. [With Christopher Marcoux]

A Strategic Theory of Effective Monitoring Arrangements for International Institutions. 2014. Journal of Theoretical Politics 26 (4): 599-628. [With Thania Sanchez]

Does it Pay to Play? How Bargaining Shapes Donor Participation in Funding Global Public Goods. 2014. Strategic Behavior and the Environment 4 (3): 263-290. [With Patrick Bayer]

Technology Competition and International Cooperation: Friends or Foes? 2014. British Journal of Political Science 44 (3): 545-574. [With Sung Eun Kim]

Before Ratification: Understanding the Timing of International Treaty Effects on Domestic Policies. 2014. International Studies Quarterly 58 (1): 29-43. [With Leonardo Baccini]

International Bureaucrats and the Formation of Intergovernmental Organizations: Institutional Design Discretion Sweetens the Pot. 2014. International Organization 68 (1): 177-209. [With Tana Johnson]

International Institutions and Domestic Politics: Can Preferential Trading Agreements Help Leaders Promote Economic Reform? 2014. Journal of Politics 76 (1): 195-214. [With Leonardo Baccini]

Partisan Heterogeneity and International Cooperation: The Case of the European Development Fund. 2014. Journal of Conflict Resolution 58 (1): 120-142 [With Christina J. Schneider]

Fit and Feasible: Why Democratizing States Form, not Join, International Organizations. 2013. International Studies Quarterly 57 (4): 831-841. [With Paul Poast]

International Bargaining, Endogenous Domestic Constraints, and Democratic Accountability. 2013. Journal of Theoretical Politics 25 (2): 260-283. [With Terrence L. Chapman and Scott Wolford]

Distributional Conflict Between Powerful States and International Treaty Ratification. 2013. International Studies Quarterly 57 (1): 13-27. [With Christina J. Schneider]

Funding Global Public Goods: The Dark Side of Multilateralism. 2013. Review of Policy Research 30 (2): 81-109. [With Patrick Bayer]

Capacity, Not Constraints: A Theory of North-South Regulatory Cooperation. 2012. Review of International Organizations 7 (4): 399-424. [With Christopher Marcoux]

A Strategic Theory of Regime Integration and Separation. 2012. International Organization 66 (4): 645-677. [With Tana Johnson]

Costly Adjustments, Markets, and International Reassurance. 2012. British Journal of Political Science 42 (3): 679-704.

Explaining Public Support for International Integration: How Do National Conditions and Treaty Characteristics Interact with Individual Beliefs? 2012. Journal of Politics 74 (4): 1108-1124. [With Thomas Sattler]

Strategic Side Payments: Preferential Trading Agreements, Economic Reform, and Foreign Aid. 2012. Journal of Politics 74 (4): 932-949. [With Leonardo Baccini]

Unilateral Influence on International Bureaucrats: An International Delegation Problem. 2012. Journal of Conflict Resolution 56 (4): 701-732.

Accession Rules for International Institutions: A Legitimacy-Efficacy Trade-off? 2012. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 56 (2): 290-312. [With Christina J. Schneider]

How Uncertainty About Outside Options Impedes International Cooperation. 2012. International Theory 4 (1): 133-161.

How Does Democratic Accountability Shape International Cooperation? 2012. Conflict Management and Peace Science. 29 (1): 28-55.

NGO Monitoring and the Legitimacy of International Cooperation. 2012. Review of International Organizations 7 (1): 1-32. [With Christopher L. Pallas]

The Enforcement-Exploitation Trade-off in International Cooperation Between Weak and Powerful States. 2011. European Journal of International Relations. 17 (4): 631-653.

International Technology Cooperation: The Problem of Commercial Rivalry. 2011. Review of Policy Research. 28 (5): 423-450.

Domestic Reform as a Rationale for Gradualism in International Cooperation. 2011. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 23 (3): 400-427.

Early Birds: Special Interests and the Strategic Logic of International Cooperation. 2011. Review of International Organizations. 6 (2): 113-140.

Regulation Under Economic Globalization. 2010. International Studies Quarterly. 54 (4): 1099-1121.

Enforcement and Capacity Building in International Cooperation. 2010. International Theory 2 (1): 32-49.

Political-Economic Problems in Trade Capacity Building. 2009. Review of International Organizations 4 (4): 329-359.

Articles on Miscellaneous Topics

Windows of Opportunity: Legislative Fragmentation Conditions the Effect of Partisanship on Product Market Deregulation. 2016. Journal of Public Policy 36 (1): 51-86. [With Michael G. Smith]

Mission and Interests: The Strategic Formation and Function of North-South NGO Campaigns. 2013. Global Governance 19 (3): 401-423. [With Christopher L. Pallas]

The Origins of Social Institutions. 2011. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 23 (2): 215-240.