Knowing is not enough, we must apply. Willing is not enough, we must do. — Bruce Lee
This page features my academic publications and research. The articles are organized by topic:environmental and energy politics. If you are interested in an article that is not online, please contact me directly.
Cutting the Gordian Knot of Economic Reform: When and How International Institutions Help. Oxford University Press. 2014. [With Leonardo Baccini]
Completed Book Manuscripts
Renewables: The Political History of a Global Energy Transition. [With Michaël Aklin]
The International Politics of Democratic Transitions: How International Organizations Promote the Consolidation of Democracy. [With Paul Poast]
Targeting Big Polluters: Understanding Activism against the Fossil Fuel Industry. [With Andrew Cheon]
Articles on Environmental and Energy Politics
Support for Renewable Energy in China: A Survey Experiment with Internet Users. Forthcoming. Journal of Cleaner Production. [With Dingding Chen and Chao-yo Cheng]
Solar Products for Poor Rural Communities as a Business: Lessons from a Successful Project in Uttar Pradesh, India. Forthcoming. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. [With Semee Yoon]
The Political Economy of Energy Access: Survey Evidence from India on State Intervention and Public Opinion. Forthcoming. Energy Research and Social Science. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]
Energy Poverty and Perceptions of Solar Power in Marginalized Communities: Survey Evidence from Uttar Pradesh, India. Forthcoming. Renewable Energy.
Interests, Institutions, and Climate Policy: Explaining the Choice of Policy Instruments for the Energy Sector. Forthcoming. Environmental Science and Policy. [With Llewelyn Hughes]
Electric Utilities and American Climate Policy: Lobbying by Expected Winners and Losers. Forthcoming. Journal of Public Policy. [With Sung Eun Kim and Joonseok Yang]
Democracy, Autocracy, and the Urban Bias: Evidence from Petroleum Subsidies. Forthcoming. Political Studies. [With Sung Eun Kim]
Explaining Differences in Sub-National Patterns of Clean Technology Transfer to China and India. Forthcoming. International Environmental Agreements. [With Patrick Bayer and Alice Xu]
Multilateral Energy Lending and Urban Bias in Autocracies: Promoting Fossil Fuels. Forthcoming. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. [With Sung Eun Kim]
All Policies Are Glocal: International Environmental Policymaking with Strategic Subnational Governments. Forthcoming. British Journal of Political Science. [With Michael Bechtel]
Small and Beautiful? The Programme of Activities and the Least Developed Countries. 2015. Climate and Development 7 (2): 153-164. [With Patrick Bayer and Valerie Pinkerton]
Quantifying Slum Electrification in India and Explaining Local Variation. 2015. Energy 80: 203-212. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]
Light for All? Evaluating Brazil's Rural Electrification Progress, 2000-2010. 2015. Energy Policy 86: 315-327. [With Tara Slough and Joonseok Yang]
Why Pick on Us? Environmental INGOs and State Shaming as a Strategic Substitute. 2015. Political Studies 63 (2): 353-372. [With Amanda M. Murdie]
Escaping Oil's Stranglehold: When Do States Invest in Energy Security? 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution. [With Andrew Cheon]
When International Organizations Bargain: Evidence from the Global Environment Facility. 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (6): 1074-1100. [With Patrick Bayer and Christopher Marcoux]
Instruments of Political Control: National Oil Companies, Oil Prices, and Petroleum Subsidies. 2015. Comparative Political Studies 48 (3): 370-402. [With Andrew Cheon and Maureen Lackner]
Socio-Economic Determinants of Charcoal Expenditures in Tanzania: Evidence from Panel Data. 2015. Energy Economics 49: 472-481. [With Anthony L. D'Agostino and Alice Xu]
Solar Home Systems for Rural India: Survey Evidence on Awareness and Willingness to Pay from Uttar Pradesh. 2015. Energy for Sustainable Development 24: 70-78. [With Semee Yoon]
Energy Poverty among Urban Street Vendors in India: Evidence from Patna, Bihar. 2015. Energy for Sustainable Development 24: 44-49. [With David Szakonyi]
The International Renewable Energy Agency: A Success Story in Institutional Innovation? 2015. International Environmental Agreements 15 (2): 159-177. [With Thijs Van de Graaf]
Who Should Take the Garbage Out? Public Opinion on Waste Management in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2015. Habitat International 46: 111-118. [With Chao-yo Cheng]
Relative Deprivation and Energy Poverty: When Does Unequal Access to Electricity Cause Dissatisfaction? 2014. International Journal of Energy Research 38 (13): 1727-1740. [With Eugenie Dugoua]
The Global Spread of Environmental Ministries: Domestic-International Interactions. 2014. International Studies Quarterly 58 (4): 159-177. [With Michaël Aklin]
Who Benefits From Economic Reform? Firms and Distributive Politics. 2014. Journal of Politics 76 (3): 841-858. [With David Szakonyi]
Fuel Stacking in India: Changes in the Cooking and Lighting Mix, 1987-2010. 2014. Energy 76 (1): 306-317. [With Chao-yo Cheng]
Laissez Faire and the Clean Development Mechanism: Determinants of Project Implementation in Indian States, 2003-2011. 2014. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 16 (8): 1687-1701. [With Patrick Bayer and Alice Xu]
Information and Energy Policy Preferences: A Survey Experiment on Public Opinion about Electricity Pricing Reform in Rural India. 2014. Economics of Governance 15 (4): 305-327. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]
Who Blames Corruption for the Poor Enforcement of Environmental Laws? Survey Evidence From Brazil. 2014. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies 16 (3): 241-262. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]
Choosing International Organizations: When Do States and the World Bank Collaborate on Environmental Projects? 2014. Review of International Organizations 9 (4): 413-440. [With Patrick Bayer and Christopher Marcoux]
American Evangelicals and Domestic Versus International Climate Policy. 2014. Review of International Organizations 9 (4): 441-469. [With Stephen Chaudoin and David Thomas Smith]
Veto Players and the Value of Political Control: A Theory with Evidence From Energy Privatization. 2014. Comparative Political Studies 47 (10): 1384-1415. [With David Szakonyi]
The Effect of Feed-In Tariffs on Renewable Electricity Generation: An Instrumental Variables Approach. 2014. Environmental and Resource Economics 57 (3): 367-392. [Michael G. Smith]
Sinking Costs to Increase Participation: Technology Deployment Agreements Enhance Climate Cooperation. 2014. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies. 16 (3): 229-240.
Grid and Off-Grid Electrification: An Integrated Model with Applications to India. 2014. Energy for Sustainable Development 19: 66-71.
Early Adopters of Solar Panels in Developing Countries: Evidence from Tanzania. 2014. Review of Policy Research 31 (1): 17-37. [With Michael G. Smith]
Environmental Standards as a Strategy of International Technology Transfer. 2014 Environmental Science and Policy 38: 192-206. [With Eri Saikawa]
Perceptions of Scientific Dissent Undermine Public Support for Environmental Policy. 2014. Environmental Science and Policy 38: 173-177. [With Michaël Aklin]
Addressing Cross-Border Environmental Displacement: When Can International Treaties Help? 2014. International Environmental Agreements 14 (1): 25-46. [With Narayan Subramanian]
International Energy Funding: Who Funds Fossil Fuels, Who Funds Energy Access to the Poor? 2013. International Environmental Agreements 13 (4): 411-423. [With Sung Eun Kim]
How Do Competing Special Interests Influence Environmental Policy? The Case of Renewable Electricity in Industrialized Democracies, 1989-2007. 2013. Political Studies 61 (4): 874-897. [With Andrew Cheon]
Political Market Failure? The Effect of Government Unity on Energy Technology Policy in Industrialized Democracies. 2013. Technovation 33 (10-11): 333-344. [With Alexandra Cirone]
Debating Clean Energy: Frames, Counter Frames, and Audiences. 2013. Global Environmental Change 23 (5): 1225-1232. [With Michaël Aklin]
Leveraging Private Capital for Climate Mitigation: Evidence from the Clean Development Mechanism. 2013. Ecological Economics 96: 14-24. [With Patrick Bayer and Christopher Marcoux]
Electricity Sector Reform and Generators as a Source of Backup Power: The Case of India. 2013. Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (5): 477-481. [With David Szakonyi]
Understanding Environmental Policy Preferences: New Evidence from Brazil. 2013. Ecological Economics 94: 28-36. [With Michaël Aklin, Patrick Bayer, and S.P. Harish]
Non-Compliance by Design: Moribund Hard Law in International Institutions. 2013. Review of International Organizations 8 (2): 163-191. [With Christopher Marcoux]
When and How Can Advocacy Groups Promote New Technologies? Conditions and Strategies for Effectiveness. 2013. Journal of Public Policy 33 (3): 259-293. [With Sung Eun Kim]
Can Strategic Technology Deployment Improve Climate Cooperation? A Game-Theoretic Analysis. 2013. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 18 (6): 785-800.
Why Do Governments Subsidize Gasoline Consumption? An Empirical Analysis of Global Gasoline Prices, 2002-2009. 2013. Energy Policy 56: 382-390. [With Andrew Cheon and Maureen Lackner]
Who Uses the Clean Development Mechanism? An Empirical Analysis of Projects in Chinese Provinces. 2013. Global Environmental Change 23 (2): 512-521. [With Patrick Bayer and Jeremy Wallace]
Trade Sanctions in International Environmental Policy: Deterring or Encouraging Free Riding? 2013. Conflict Management and Peace Science 30 (4): 309-334. [With Alexandra Cirone]
Political Competition, Path Dependence, and the Strategy of Sustainable Energy Transitions. 2013. American Journal of Political Science 57 (3): 643-658. [With Michaël Aklin]
Promoting International Environmental Cooperation Through Unilateral Action: When Can Trade Sanctions Help? 2013. Global Environmental Politics 13 (2): 26-45.
Global Patterns of Renewable Energy Innovation, 1990-2009. 2013. Energy for Sustainable Development. 17 (3): 288-295. [With Patrick Bayer and Lindsay Dolan]
A Model of Dynamic Climate Governance: Dream Big, Win Small. 2013. International Environmental Agreements. 13 (2): 107-125.
External Sources of Clean Technology: Evidence from the Clean Development Mechanism. 2013. Review of International Organizations 8 (1): 81-109. [With Patrick Bayer]
Issue Linkage in Clean Technology Cooperation: For Better or Worse? 2013. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 15 (1): 147-155.
Why Has Public R&D on Alternatives to Fossil Fuels Decreased in Industrialized Countries? 2013. Environmental Science and Policy 25: 127-137. [With Michael G. Smith]
Geoengineering and Global Warming: A Strategic Perspective. 2012. International Environmental Agreements 12 (4): 375-389.
Legislative Fractionalization and Partisan Shifts to the Left Increase the Volatility of Public Energy R&D Expenditures. 2012. Energy Policy 46: 49-57. [With Leonardo Baccini]
Environmental Regulation in the Shadow of International Trade Law: A Principal-Agent Analysis. 2012. Strategic Behavior and the Environment 2 (3): 193-215.
Global Warming, Irreversibility, and Uncertainty: A Political Analysis. 2012. Global Environmental Politics 12 (4): 68-85.
Dynamics of Spatial Interdependence: The Contingent Effect of International Trade on Voluntary Environmental Standards. 2012. Environment and Planning C 30 (5): 871-890. [With Christopher Marcoux]
Intellectual Property Rights, Clean Technology, and Public Policy: A Strategic Analysis. 2012. Strategic Behavior and the Environment 2 (2): 173-191.
Technology Investment, Bargaining, and International Environmental Agreements. 2012. International Environmental Agreements 12 (2): 145-163.
Oil Prices and Energy Technology Innovation: An Empirical Analysis. 2012. Global Environmental Change 22 (2): 407-417. [With Andrew Cheon]
Strategic Problems in North-South Climate Finance: Creating Joint Gains for Donors and Recipients. 2012. Environmental Science and Policy 21 (1): 14-23.
How Do Electoral Competition and Special Interests Shape the Stringency of Renewable Energy Standards? 2012. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies. 14 (1): 23-34.
The Strategic Design of Technology Funds for Climate Cooperation: Generating Joint Gains. 2012. Environmental Science and Policy. 15 (1): 92-105.
Special Interests, Regulatory Quality, and the Pesticides Overload. 2011. Review of Policy Research. 28 (6): 585-612. [With Christopher Marcoux]
Frontrunners and Laggards: The Strategy of Environmental Regulation under Uncertainty. 2011. Environmental and Resource Economics. 50 (3): 325-346.
Can Unilateral Leadership Promote International Environmental Cooperation? 2011. International Interactions. 37 (3): 320-339.
Export Orientation and Domestic Electricity Generation: Effects on Energy Efficiency Innovation in Select Sectors. 2011. Energy Policy. 39 (9): 5638-5646.
A California Effect for International Externalities? 2011. International Interactions. 37 (2): 170-189.
Enforcing International Environmental Agreements: Technological Standards Can Help. 2010. Review of International Organizations. 5 (4): 475-496.
Explaining the Schwarzenegger Phenomenon: Local Frontrunners in Climate Policy. 2009. Global Environmental Politics 9 (3): 82-105.
Articles on International Cooperation and Institutions
Not Letting `Bad Apples' Spoil the Bunch: Democratization and Strict International Organization Accession Rules. Forthcoming. Review of International Organizations. [With Christodoulos Kaoutzanis and Paul Poast]
When Do International Economic Agreements Allow Countries to Pay to Breach? Forthcoming. Review of International Organizations. [With Krzysztof J. Pelc]
Your Place or Mine? Institutional Capture and the Creation of Overlapping International Institutions. Forthcoming. British Journal of Political Science. [With Thijs Van de Graaf]
Rising Regional Powers Meet the Global Leader: A Strategic Analysis of Influence Competition. Forthcoming. International Political Science Review. [With Sung Eun Kim]
When is Good News About Pro-Cooperation Lobbies Good News About Cooperation? Forthcoming. British Journal of Political Science. [With Stephen Chaudoin]
Profitable Participation: Technology Innovation as an Influence on the Ratification of Regulatory Treaties. Forthcoming. British Journal of Political Science. [With Christopher Marcoux]
The Domestic Sources of Donor Credibility: When and How Can Domestic Interest Groups Improve the Effectiveness of Threats and Promises? 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (2): 283-309. [With Man Yan Eng]
Picking Treaties, Picking Winners: International Treaty Negotiations and the Strategic Mobilization of Domestic Interests. 2015. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (6): 1043-1073. [With Joseph M. Brown]
A Strategic Theory of Effective Monitoring Arrangements for International Institutions. 2014. Journal of Theoretical Politics 26 (4): 599-628. [With Thania Sanchez]
Technology Competition and International Cooperation: Friends or Foes? 2014. British Journal of Political Science 44 (3): 545-574. [With Sung Eun Kim]
Before Ratification: Understanding the Timing of International Treaty Effects on Domestic Policies. 2014. International Studies Quarterly 58 (1): 29-43. [With Leonardo Baccini]
International Bureaucrats and the Formation of Intergovernmental Organizations: Institutional Design Discretion Sweetens the Pot. 2014. International Organization 68 (1): 177-209. [With Tana Johnson]
International Institutions and Domestic Politics: Can Preferential Trading Agreements Help Leaders Promote Economic Reform? 2014. Journal of Politics 76 (1): 195-214. [With Leonardo Baccini]
Partisan Heterogeneity and International Cooperation: The Case of the European Development Fund. 2014. Journal of Conflict Resolution 58 (1): 120-142 [With Christina J. Schneider]
Fit and Feasible: Why Democratizing States Form, not Join, International Organizations. 2013. International Studies Quarterly 57 (4): 831-841. [With Paul Poast]
International Bargaining, Endogenous Domestic Constraints, and Democratic Accountability. 2013. Journal of Theoretical Politics 25 (2): 260-283. [With Terrence L. Chapman and Scott Wolford]
Distributional Conflict Between Powerful States and International Treaty Ratification. 2013. International Studies Quarterly 57 (1): 13-27. [With Christina J. Schneider]
Funding Global Public Goods: The Dark Side of Multilateralism. 2013. Review of Policy Research 30 (2): 81-109. [With Patrick Bayer]
Capacity, Not Constraints: A Theory of North-South Regulatory Cooperation. 2012. Review of International Organizations 7 (4): 399-424. [With Christopher Marcoux]
A Strategic Theory of Regime Integration and Separation. 2012. International Organization 66 (4): 645-677. [With Tana Johnson]
Costly Adjustments, Markets, and International Reassurance. 2012. British Journal of Political Science 42 (3): 679-704.
Explaining Public Support for International Integration: How Do National Conditions and Treaty Characteristics Interact with Individual Beliefs? 2012. Journal of Politics 74 (4): 1108-1124. [With Thomas Sattler]
Strategic Side Payments: Preferential Trading Agreements, Economic Reform, and Foreign Aid. 2012. Journal of Politics 74 (4): 932-949. [With Leonardo Baccini]
Unilateral Influence on International Bureaucrats: An International Delegation Problem. 2012. Journal of Conflict Resolution 56 (4): 701-732.
Accession Rules for International Institutions: A Legitimacy-Efficacy Trade-off? 2012. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 56 (2): 290-312. [With Christina J. Schneider]
How Uncertainty About Outside Options Impedes International Cooperation. 2012. International Theory 4 (1): 133-161.
How Does Democratic Accountability Shape International Cooperation? 2012. Conflict Management and Peace Science. 29 (1): 28-55.
NGO Monitoring and the Legitimacy of International Cooperation. 2012. Review of International Organizations 7 (1): 1-32. [With Christopher L. Pallas]
The Enforcement-Exploitation Trade-off in International Cooperation Between Weak and Powerful States. 2011. European Journal of International Relations. 17 (4): 631-653.
International Technology Cooperation: The Problem of Commercial Rivalry. 2011. Review of Policy Research. 28 (5): 423-450.
Domestic Reform as a Rationale for Gradualism in International Cooperation. 2011. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 23 (3): 400-427.
Early Birds: Special Interests and the Strategic Logic of International Cooperation. 2011. Review of International Organizations. 6 (2): 113-140.
Regulation Under Economic Globalization. 2010. International Studies Quarterly. 54 (4): 1099-1121.
Enforcement and Capacity Building in International Cooperation. 2010. International Theory 2 (1): 32-49.
Political-Economic Problems in Trade Capacity Building. 2009. Review of International Organizations 4 (4): 329-359.
Articles on Miscellaneous Topics
Windows of Opportunity: Legislative Fragmentation Conditions the Effect of Partisanship on Product Market Deregulation. Forthcoming. Journal of Public Policy. [With Michael G. Smith]
Mission and Interests: The Strategic Formation and Function of North-South NGO Campaigns. 2013. Global Governance 19 (3): 401-423. [With Christopher L. Pallas]
The Origins of Social Institutions. 2011. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 23 (2): 215-240.