The investigative team at Columbia University includes the following Professors: Pierre Azoulay, Lawrence Brown, Annetine Gelijns, Joshua Graff Zivin, Frank Lichtenberg, Alan Moskowitz, and Richard Nelson. The primary investigators at Stanford University are Professors Nathan Rosenberg and Woody Powell. The collective faculty offers expertise in the economics of technological change, the institutional dynamics of biotechnology and pharmaceutical innovation (including University-Industry interactions), pharmacoeconomics and methods of clinical evaluation, and public policy and its influence over the innovation process. The investigators are widely published in these areas, including numerous journal articles and several seminal books. They have also served on National Academy of Sciences panels, have had extensive interactions with the FDA, NIH, CMS and non-governmental payer organizations, and have testified before Congress on medical technology related issues.