Methods
We combine the strengths of demographic and socio-economic research with landscape variables and studies of landscape ecology and epidemiology to understand how malaria becomes endemic after an epidemic event, and how malaria is dispersed to rural and urban communities with low or no infection in a region.
 
The processes we are examining include:
 
- malaria dispersal in the household, within each unit, and in the entire Iquitos region
- human migration between the urban, rural and peri-urban units
- changes in household income and development programs; and changes in the ecosystem as malaria reservoir
- increase of vector habitat through land-use change.
 
These processes will be analyzed at three scales:
 
   1. Region-level analysis is defined by municipal boundaries, encompassing all three units (urban, rural and peri-urban). Attributes at this level include demographic, economic, and geophysical events such as agrarian colonization, development projects (building fish ponds to supplement income), and migration forced by catastrophic floods.
   2. Unit-level analysis is defined by land use and human population density. Attributes in the dataset for this level include number of households and fishponds, household composition, actual and proportional extent of malaria infection, and types of malaria.
   3. Individual-level analysis is defined by the individual household. Attributes at this level include cultural background, economic activities over time, land tenure condition, mobility, and available capital resources.