Organized List of Publications and Presentations 1989 to mid-2004

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(to Research BEFORE mid-2004 Overview)
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(see CV for list of publications without abstracts or pdfs)
(to Chronological List of Publications AFTER mid-2004 with abstracts and links to PDFs)


1. Multiple visual analyzers

Many of the early publications before 1989 belong in this category, but are not listed here explicitly.

Graham, N. (1989a) Visual Pattern Analyzers. New York: Oxford University Press.
(This book reviewed and integrated experimental and theoretical work on pattern analyzers in the human visual system. Both spatial and temporal dimensions are considered, although both color and specifically 3-D questions are not. See summary in next article.)

Graham, N. (1992) Breaking the visual stimulus into parts. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 55-61.
(Full text ) (This is a short summary of the 1989 book.)


1.5. Decision stage: Multidimensional signal detection theory

Ch. 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10 of 1989 book. Further material exists in:

Graham, N., Kramer, P. and Yager, D. (1987) Multidimensional Signal-Detection Theory: Probability Distributions and Combination Rules. J. Mathematical Psychology, 31, 366-409.

and several earlier publications

Also see discussion of ideal-observer versus peak decision rules in:

Graham, N. and Hood, D. (1992) Quantal noise and decision rules in dynamic models of light adaptation. Vision Research, 32, 779-787


2. Complex (non-Fourier, second-order) channels

Graham, N. (1989) Low-level visual processes and texture segregation. Physica Scripta, 39, 147-152.

Sutter, A., Beck, J. and Graham, N. (1989) Contrast and spatial variables in texture segregation: Testing a simple spatial-frequency channels model. Perception and Psychophysics, 46, 312-332.

Graham, N., Sutter, A., Venkatesan, C., and Humaran, M. (1992) Nonlinear processes in perceived region segregation: Orientation selectivity of complex channels. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 12, 142-146.

Graham, N., Sutter, A., Venkatesan, C. (1993) Spatial-frequency- and orientation-selectivity of simple and complex channels in region segregation. Vision Research , 33, 14, 1893-1911.

Sutter, A. and Graham, N (1995) Investigating simple and complex mechanisms in texture segregation using the speed-accuracy tradeoff method. Vision Research., 35, 20, 2825-2843.

Graham, N., and Sutter, A. (1998) Spatial summation in simple (Fourier) and complex (non-Fourier) channels in texture segregation. Vision Research, 38, 231-257.

Graham, N., Rico, M., Offen, S. and Scott, W. (1999) Texture segregation shows only a very small lower-hemifield advantage. Vision Research, 39, 1171-1175.

Graham, N. and Wolfson, S. (2001) A note about preferred orientations at the first and second stages of complex (second-order) texture channels. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 18, 2273-2281.

Landy, M,. and Graham, N, (2003) Visual Perception of Texture. In The Visual Neurosciences, Vol. 2, pp. 1106-1118. Eds. L. M. Chalupa and J.S. Werner, MIT press.

Graham, N and Wolfson S. (in press July 2004) Is there opponent-orientation coding in the second-order channels of pattern vision? Vision Research.


3 (and 2.5 and 3.5). The intensive nonlinearity in texture segregation: Normalization (contrast gain control); Early-local nonlinearities; Constant-difference-series Experiments.

Note: References in this section primarily about the intensive nonlinearity in texture segregation (which we now know cannot be an early local nonlinearity but may well be normalization). They also contain some results about the spatial nonlinearity (complex channels in 2.0 above). Constant-difference-series experiments are described in several of these publications.

Beck, J., Graham, N., and Sutter, A. (1991) Lightness Differences and the Perceived Segregation of Regions and Populations. Perception and Psychophysics, 257-269.

Graham, N. (1991) Complex Channels, Early Local Nonlinearities, and Normalization in Texture Segregation. In Computational Models of Visual Processing, edited by M. L. Landy and J. A. Movshon, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Graham, N., Beck, J. and Sutter, A. (1992) Nonlinear processes in spatial-frequency channel models of perceived texture segregation: Effects of sign and amount of contrast. Vision Research, 32, 719-743

Graham, N. (1994) Nonlinearities in texture segregation. Higher-order Processing in the Visual System Proceedings from The Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 184, Oct. 1993, London, England.

Graham, N. and Sutter, A. (1996) Effect of spatial scale and background luminance on the spatial and intensive nonlinearities in texture segregation. Vision Research, 36, 10, 1371-1390.

Graham, N. and Sutter, A. (2000) Normalization: Contrast-gain control in simple (Fourier) and complex (non-Fourier) pathways of pattern vision. Vision Research, 40, 2737-2761.

Wolfson, S. and Graham, N. (in press June 2004) Element-arrangement textures in multiple objective tasks. Spatial Vision

Wolfson, S.S., Graham, N. & Slinin. O. (2004). Normalization and uncertainty effects in three objective tasks using first-order and second-order textures. Vision Sciences Society, abstract #E56, page 134


4. Light adaptation (luminance gain control)

Graham, N. and Hood, D. (1992a) Quantal noise and decision rules in dynamic models of light adaptation. Vision Research, 32, 779-787

Graham, N. and Hood, D. (1992b) Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: The merging of two traditions. Vision Research, 32, 1373-1393

Wiegand, T.E., Hood, D.C., and Graham, N. (1995). Testing a computational model of light-adaptation dynamics. Vision Research., 35, 21, 3037-3051.

Hood, D.C., Graham, N., Wiegand, T.E, and Chase, V. M. (1997). Probed-sinewave paradigm: A test of models of light-adaptation dynamics. Vision Research, 37, 9, 1177-1191.

Hood, D.C. and Graham, N. (1998) Threshold fluctuations on temporally modulated backgrounds: A possible physiological explanation based upon a recent computational model. Visual Neuroscience, 15, 957-967.

Wolfson, S. and Graham, N. (2000) Exploring the dynamics of light adaptation: The effects varying the flickering background's duration in the probed-sinewave paradigm. Vision Research, 40, 2277-2289.

Wolfson, S. and Graham, N. (2001) Comparing increment and decrement probes in the probed-sinewave paradigm. Vision Research, 41, 1119­1131

Wolfson, S. and Graham, N, (2001) The processing in the probed-sinewave paradigm is likely retinal. Visual Neuroscience, 18, 1003-1010

Graham,N., Wolfson, S.S. & Chowdhury, J (2001) A comparison of light adaptation results from 40 years of the probed-sinewave paradigm.Invest Ophth & Vis Sci, 42(4), abstract #840, page S157