Introduction to Earth Sciences I
Lab Exam Topics 2008

Lab 1 - The Big Bang

- know what the Hubble constant is, what it means
- know how to determine the Hubble constant (slope of the graph of expansion vs. distance)
- know how to determine the Age of the universe = 1 / Hubble constant

Lab 2 - Minerals and Igneous Rocks

- be able to identify the common rock-forming minerals using the mineral characteristics chart
- be able to identify volcanic vs. intrusive textures
- be able to identify felsic, intermediate, and mafic igneous rocks according to their color
- be able to identify igneous rocks using the classification of igneous rocks

Lab 3 - Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks

- be able to identify conglomerate, sandstone, shale, limestone, and coal
- be able to identify (foliated) slate, schist, gneiss; (non-foliated) marble, quartzite

Lab 4 - Structural Geology

- be able to recognize and sketch anticlines and synclines in map and profile view
- be able to recognize and sketch normal, thrust, reverse and strike-slip faults in map view and profile
- be able to interpret the stress history of an area from the types of faulting & folding

Lab 5 - Earthquake Seismology

- know how to determine the distance to an earthquake using the S-P interval
- know how to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using seismograms from three different seismic stations
- know how to determine the sense of motion in an earthquake on a strike-slip fault by examining the first motions
- be able to calculate the magnitude of an earthquake using a seismogram and the Richter nomogram

Lab 6 - Density and Isostasy

- know what density means and how it is determined (and the proper units)
- given the density of a material and the density of a "fluid" be able to succeed in Dave Letterman's "Will It Float" game
- and if it floats, given simple round-number densities, know how deep in the "fluid" an object will sink (what proportion will be below the surface and what portion above)
- The specific example on this exam (2008) will be how much will the crust rise up after x kilometers of erosion

Lab 7 - Origin of Magma, Plate Motion & Hotspots

- know how changing depth/pressure or addition of water can change the melting temperature of mantle rocks
(be able to use the Pressure Temperature curve for the Earth's mantle conditions)
- be able to determine the direction and rate of plate motion from the ages along a hotspot track

Lab 8 - Plate Tectonics

- know how to determine the age of ocean crust from magnetic anomalies with the aid of the magnetic polarity timescale
- know how to determine the rate of seafloor spreading from the age of the crust and the distance from the midocean ridge that produced it
- know what is happening at a subduction zone and be able to recognize one from the association of deep ocean trench with thrust fault earthquakes, volcanic arc, and descending plane of deep-focus earthquakes
- know what the principal driving force is that is responsible for the motion of oceanic plates (gravity)
and be able to predict the relative speed (slower-faster) based on the length of their spreading centers and subduction

Lab 9 - Groundwater & Streams

- be able to construct a contour map of the water table from water the levels in lakes and wells
- know how to determine the direction of groundwater flow from lake levels or water table contour maps
- be able to recognize oxbow lakes on topographic maps and know how they have formed
- be able to recognize stream terraces on topographic maps and know how they form.