Genomic test results collected during the provision of medical care and stored in Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems represent an opportunity for clinical research into disease heterogeneity and clinical outcomes. In this paper, we evaluate the use of genomic test reports ordered for cancer patients in order to derive cancer subtypes and to identify biological pathways predictive of poor survival outcomes. A novel method is proposed to calculate patient similarity based on affected biological pathways rather than gene mutations. We demonstrate that this approach identifies subtypes of prognostic value and biological pathways linked to survival, with implications for precision treatment selection and a better understanding of the underlying disease. We also share lessons learned regarding the opportunities and challenges of secondary use of observational genomic data to conduct such research.