Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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world from heaven at once adopts a human body,
whilst that one which returns there from hell has first
to wander about in plants and animals before it reaches
the degree of living in a human body.

The Hindus speak in their traditions of a large num¬
ber of hells, of their qualities and their names, and for
each kind of sin they have a special hell. The number
of hells is 88,000 according to the Vishnu-Purdna.
We shall quote what this book says on the subject:—

"The man who makes a false claim and who bears
false witness, he who helps these two and he who
ridicules people, come into the Raurava hell.

"He who sheds innocent blood, who robs others of
their rights and plunders them, and who kills cows,
comes into Bodlia. Those also who strangle people
come here.

"Whoso kills a Brahman, and he who steals gold,
and their companions, the princes who do not look after
their subjects, he who commits adultery with the family
of his teacher, or who lies down with his mother-in-law,
come into Taptakumbha.

"Whoso connives at the shame of his wife for greedi¬
ness, commits adultery with his sister or the wife of his
son, sells his child, is stingy towards himself with his
property in order to save it, comes into Mahdjwdla.

"Whoso is disrespectful to his teacher and is not
pleased with him, despises men, commits incest with
animals, contemns the Veda and Puranas, or tries to
make a gain by means of them in the markets, comes
into Savala.

"A man who steals and commits tricks, who opposes
the straight line of conduct of men, who hates his
father, who does not like God and men, who does not
honour the gems which God has made glorious, and
who considers them to be like other stones, comes into

"Whoso does not honour the rights of parents and
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