Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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from ignorance, and for the manifestation of justice.
But not every sinner enters hell. Some of them escape
hell by previously doing works of repentance and ex¬
piation. The greatest expiation is uninterruptedly
thinking of Vishnu in every action. Others wander
about in plants, filthy insects and birds, and abominable
dirty creeping things like lice and worms, for such a
length of time as they desire it.' "

In the book Sdriikhya we read: "He who deserves
exaltation and reward will become like one of the
angels, mixing with the hosts of spiritual beings, not
being prevented from moving freely in the heavens
and from living in the company of their inhabitants,
or like one of the eight classes of spiritual beings. But
he who deserves humiliation as recompense for sins
and crimes will become an animal or a plant, and will
wander about until he deserves a reward so as to be
saved from punishment, or until he offers himself as
expiation, flinging away the vehicle of the body, and
thereby attaining salvation."

A theosoph who inclines towards metempsychosis
says : " The metempsychosis has four degrees :

" I. The t7xtnsfe7-ring, i.e. the procreation as limited
to the human species, because it transfers existence
from one individual to another ; the opposite of this is—

" 2. The transforming, which concerns men in parti¬
cular, since they are transformed into monkeys, pigs,
and elephants.

"3. A stable condition of existence, like the condition
of the plants. This is worse than transferring, because
it is a stable condition of life, remains as it is through
all time, and lasts as long as the mountains.

"4. The dispersing, the opposite of number 3, which
applies to the plants that are plucked, and to animals
immolated as sacrifice, because they vanish without
leaving posterity."

Abu-Yakiib of Sijistan maintains in his book, called
" The disclosing of that which is veiled" that the species
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