Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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are preserved ; that metempsychosis always proceeds in
one and the same species, never crossing its limits and
passing into another species.

This was also the  opinion of the ancient Greeks; Quotations

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for Johannes Grammaticus relates as the view ot Plato nesOram-

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that the rational souls will be clad in the  bodies ot Piato.
animals, and that in this regard he followed thc'fables
of Pythagoras.

Socrates says in the book Phcedo: " The body is
earthy, ponderous, heavy, and the soul, which loves it,
wanders about and is attracted towards the place, to
which it looks from fear of the shapeless and of Hades,
the gathering-place of the souls. They are soiled, and
circle round the graves and cemeteries, where souls
have been seen appearing in shadowy forms. This
phantasmagoria only occurs to such souls as have not
been entirely separated, in which there is still a part
of that towards which the look is directed."

Further he says: " It appears that these are not the
souls of the good, but the souls of the wicked, which
wander about in these things to make an expiation for
the badness of their former kind of rearing. Thus they
remain until they are again bound in a body on account
of the desire for the bodily shape which has followed
them. They will dwell in bodies the character of
which is like the character which they had in the world.
Whoso, e.g. only cares for eating and drinking will enter
the various kinds of asses and wild animals ; and he
who preferred wrong and oppression will enter the
various kinds of wolves, and falcons, and hawks."

Further he says about the gathering-places of the
souls after death: " If I did not think that I am
going first to gods who are wise, ruling, and good. Page 33.
then afterwards to men, deceased ones, better than
those here, I should be wrong not to be in sorrow about

Further, Plato says about the two places of reward and

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