Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 208  



The west¬
ern and
frontiers of

which is like a cupola, similar to the mountain Dun-
bawand. The snow there never melts. It is always
visible from the region of Takeshar and Lauhawar
(Lahore). The distance between this peak and the
plateau of Kashmir is two farsakh. The fortress Raja-
giri lies south of it, and the fortress Lahur west of it,
the two strongest places I have ever seen. The town
Rajawari is three farsakh distant from the peak. This
is the farthest place to which our merchants trade, and
beyond which they never pass.

This is the frontier of India from the north.

In the western frontier mountains of India there live
various tribes of the Afghans, and extend up to the
neighbourhood of the Sindh Valley,

The southern frontier of India is formed by the
ocean. The coast of India begins with Tiz, the capital of
Makran, and extends thence in a south-eastern direction
towards the region of Al-daibal, over a distance of 40
farsakh. Between the two places lies the Gulf of
Turan. A gulf is like an angle or a winding line of
water penetrating from the ocean into the continent,
and is dangerous for navigation, specially on account of
ebb and flood. An estuary is something similar to a
gulf, but is not formed by the ocean's penetrating into
the continent. It is formed by an expanse of flowing
water, which there is changed into standing water and
is connected with the ocean. These estuaries, too, are
dangerous for the ships, because the water is sweet and
does not bear heavy bodies as well as salt water does.

After the above-mentioned gulf follow the small
Munha, the great Munha, then the Bawarij, i.e. the
pirates of Kacch and Somanath. They are thus called
because they commit their robberies on sea in ships
called hira. The places on the coast are :—Tawalleshar,
50/arso-M from Daibal; Lohardni, 12 farsakh; Baga,
12 farsctkh; Kacch, where the mukl-tree grows, and
Bdroi, 6 farsakh; Somandth,  14 farsakh; Kanhdyat,
  Page 208