Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 1)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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  Page 354  

354                       ALBERUNPS INDIA.

The lunar day, based on the candra mdna, is called
tithi. Dividing the lunar year by 360 or the lunar
month by 30, you get as the measure of the lunar
clay 3"'f!V¥#!V¥9 civil days (wrong: read i^;|-i|-;||-^ civil

According to the Vishmc-Dharma, this is the time
during which the moon is visible when she is far dis¬
tant from the sun.

Nakshatra-mdna is the period of the moon's passing
through her twenty-seven stations, viz. 27 J-4'|-|f clays.
This number is the quotient which you get by dividing
the days of a kctlpa by the number of the revolutions
of the moon in a kalpct. Dividing it by 27, you get as
the time of the moon's passing one station i-g-l,^^-^ civil
days. Multiplying the same number by 12, as we have
done with the lunar month, we get 327|^f;§fi civil days
as the time of the moon's passing twelve times through
all her stations. Dividing the first number by 30, we get
as the measure of the sidereal day f-l-f;^!^^ civil days.

According to the Vishnu-Dharma, the sidereal month
has only twenty-seven days, whilst the months of the
other measures have thirty days ; and if a year is com¬
posed of these days, it has Z'^7\y,t%t days (see above).
Evidently there is a fault in the text of Vishnu-Dharma,
as the month is reckoned too short.
What use is      The scturct-mdna is used in the computation of the

made of the                        i-i                              ,^        i    7                 ijic

saura-mdna, ycars which composc the kalpa and the four yugas m
TOctrea, and the coturyugas, of the years of the nativities, of the
equinoxes and solstices, of the sixth parts of the year
or the seasons, and of the difference between day and
night in the nychthemeron. All these things are com¬
puted in solar years, months, and days.

The candra-mdna is used in the computation of the
eleven karana (v. chap. Ixxviii.), in the determination
of the leap month, in the computation of the sum of
days of the unardtra (v. chap. Ii.), and of new moon and
fijll moon for lunar and solar eclipses (v. chap, lix.),

  Page 354