Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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CHAPTER XLIX.                            3

Presupposing this statement to be known, and refer¬
ring the reader to our explanation of the various mea¬
sures of time which we have given in former chapters,
we offer the following analysis.

Of the life of Brahman there have elapsed before our
gauge 26,215,73,2948,132 of our years. Of the nych-
themeron of Brahman, i.e. of the kalpa of the day, there
have elapsed 1,972,948,132, and of the seventh manvan-
tara 120,532,132.

The latter is also the date of the imprisoning of the
King Bali, for it happened in the first caturyuga of the
seventh manvantara.

In all chronological dates which we have mentioned
already and shall still mention, we only reckon with
complete years, for the Hindus are in the habit of dis¬
regarding j'raci!^ows of a year.

Further, the Vishmc-Bharmct says: " Markandeya The time of
says, in answer to a question of Vajra: 'I have already co'rffng'to
lived as long as 6 kalpas and 6 manvantaras of the
seventh kalpa, 23 tretdyugas of the seventh manvantara.
In the twenty-fourth tretdyuga Rama killed Ravana,
and Lakshmana, the brother of Rama, killed Kumbha-
karna, the brother of Ravana. The two subjugated all
the Rakshasas. At that time Valmiki, the Rishi, com¬
posed the story of Rama and Ramayana and eternalised
it in his books. It was I who told it to Yudhishthira,
the son of Pandu, in the forest of Kamyakavana.'"

The author of the Vishnu-Dharma reckons here with
tretdyugas, first, because the events which he mentions
occurred in a certain tretdyuga, and secondly, because it
is more convenient to reckon with a simple unit than
with such a unit as requires to be explained by reference
to its single quarters. Besides, the latter part of the
tretdyuga is a more suitable time for the events men¬
tioned than its beginning, because it is so much nearer
to the age of evil-doing (v. i. pp. 379, 380). No doubt,
the date of Rama and Ramayana is known among the

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