Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Alberuni's India (v. 2)

(London :  Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,  1910.)



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CHAPTER LI.                                21

it has not yet run into the new solar month, still does
no longer form part of the preceding month.

If a month is repeated, the first time it has its
ordinary name, whilst the second time they add before
the name the word durd to distinguish between them.
If, e.g. the month Ashadha is repeated, the first is called Page 213.
Ashadha, the second Durdshddha. The first month is
that which is disregarded in the calculation. The Hin¬
dus consider it as unlucky, and do not celebrate any of
the festivals in it which they celebrate in the other
months. The most unlucky time in this month is that
day on which the lunation reaches its end.

The author of the Vishnu-Dharma says: " Candra Quotation
(mdna) is smaller than sdvana, i.e. the lunar year is vishnu-
smaller than the civil year, by six days, i.e. ilnardtra.
Una means decrease, deficiency. Saura is greater than
candra by eleven days, which gives in two years and
seven months the supernumerary adhimdsa month.
This whole month is unlucky, and nothing must be
done in it."

This is a rough description of the matter. We shall
now describe it accurately.

The lunar year has 360 lunar days, the solar year has
371AV lunar days. This difference sums up to the
thirty days of an adhimdsa in the course of 976/yVinr
lunar days, i.e. in 32 months, or in 2 years, 8 months, 16
days, plus the fraction: 4V7ir<r lunar day, which is
nearly = 5 minutes, 15 seconds.

As the religious reason of this theorv of intercala- Quotation

.                                 „                             , .   ,    from the

tion the Hindus mention a passage of the Veda, which veda.
they have read to us, to the following tenor: "If the
day of conjunction, i.e. the first lunar day of the month,
passes without the sun's marching from one zodiacal sign
to the other, and if this takes place on the following
day, the preceding month falls out of the calculation."

The meaning of this passage is not correct, and the criticisms
fault must have risen with the man who recited and
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