American dictionary of printing and bookmaking

(New York :  H. Lockwood,  1894.)



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curious, has not proved useful. In 1793 he succeeded
in printing Chinese characters with movable type, his
specimens being much admired. He is also said to have
discovered some improvements in the composition of
type metal and the process of melting and casting. He
was the author of several works upon typography and
of one upon bibliography. He was born in Leipsic on
November 23, 1719, and died there on January 28,1794.
The house is continued to the present day under the
title of Breitkopf & Hartel, and is still one of the most
complete in the world. Every branch of the art is there
carried on.

Bremner Machine.—A single small cylinder press
made by Harrild & Co., London. The feed-board is
nearly on a level with the bottom of the cylinder. Grip¬
pers catch the sheet and carry it completely around, and
then it is taken by tapes and deposited on a fly, from
which it is laid upon the delivery-table. There is a two-
feeder machine of this kind also, and they have been
made with four and six feeders. There is one cylinder
which in its continual revolution successively takes the
sheets presented to it from as many points as there are
feeding-boards. In the two-color machines there are one
feeding-board, two forms and two sets of inking appa¬
ratus. The sheet is held fast to the cylinder by the
grippers in the same position it was originally taken on,
receiving the impression of first one form in one color
and then the second in another color.

Brenton, James J., the editor of a newspaper in
Jamaica, Long Island, was born at Pittstown, N". Y., in
1806. He commenced as a printer in Newport, R. I., in
May, 1817, and in 1829 began the Washington County
Advocate in Wickford in that State. In May, 1835, he
established the Long Island Democrat at Jamaica, and
carried it on until his death. In 1850 Brenton published
Voices from the Press : A Collection of Sketches, Essays
and Poems, by Practical Printers. This contains much
good verse and prose, and is accompanied with biograph¬
ical sketches of many printers.

BreYier.—A kind of type inuch used in all printing-
offices, in size between minion and bourgeois, and by
the point system known as eight point. Nine lines
make an inch. It is half the body of a type very rarely
cast, known as Columbian. In daily newspapers of the
largest size it is generally used for editorial matter, and
it is often the body of voluminous works where com¬
pression is necessary. No type is more valuable in a
job office. It is called petit texte in French ; Petit or
Jungfer in German ; brevier in Dutch, and testino in
Italian.    This Dictionary is set in brevier.

Brevier Brass Rule.—Brass rules cast on a bre¬
vier body.

BreTRTSter, Charles "Warren, author of Fifty
Years in a Printing-Office and Rambles about Ports¬
mouth, was born in that city in New Hampshire on Sep¬
tember 13,1812. He was apprenticed to the Portsmouth
Journal, and fifteen years after, having passed through
the intermediate stage of journeyman, he became its
editor. At the time of his death he had been connected
with the newspaper for more than fifty years. He was
several times a member of the State Legislature, and in
1850 a member of the Constitutional Convention. He
died on August 3, 1878.

Breisrster, Osmyn, a publisher of Boston, died in
that city on July 15, 1889. He was born in Worthing-
ton, Mass., on August 2, 1797, and was, therefore,
ninety-two years of age. He was apprenticed to the
printer's trade with Samuel T. Armstrong in 1812, and
on November 1, 1818, he entered into partnership with
his employer, his fellow-apprentice, Uriel Crocker, also
being admitted. In 1825 Mr. Armstrong withdrew, and
the business was continued by the young men as Crocker
& Brewster. Mr. Brewster attended chiefly to the book¬
store, while Mr. Crocker directed the printing-office.    In


1876 they gave up business, having then been in partner¬
ship together fifty-eight years and associated as printers
for sixty-four years. Their copyrights were disposed
of to Henry O. Houghton & Co. Their house was prob¬
ably the only bookselling or pubHshing firm in Boston
that did not fail either in the crisis of 1837 or the panic
of 1857. Mr. Brewster was several times a member of
the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and was
also in the State Senate and a member of the Constitu¬
tional Convention. In November, 1886, he and Mr.
Crocker celebrated the seventy-fifth anniversary of their
connection in business.

Brian, Henry T., foreman of printing at the Gov¬
ernment Printing-Office, Washington, D. C, was born
in Baltimore, Md., on September 13, 1843. He received
a liberal education in the public schools and high school
of Baltimore, and served an apprenticeship at the print¬
ing business with W. M. Inness, then proprietor of the
largest book and job
office in the State. At
the beginning of the
Civil War he enlisted
in the Union army as a
member of the Ninth
Maryland Infantry,
and in the third year
was taken a prisoner
of war, being confined
at Belle Isle from Oc¬
tober, 1863, to March,
1864. On September
13, 1867, he began
work at the case in the
Government Printing-
Office, and was pro¬
moted step by step un¬
til in March, 1870, he
received the appoint¬
ment of assistant fore¬
man of printing, and
in 1871 foreman of
printing, under A. M. Clapp, the Public Printer, and
held the position until 1877, when he was removed by
J. D. Defrees. He was reajDpointed to the same position
in April, 1882, by Sterling P. Rounds, when the latter
took charge, and has served continuously in that posi¬
tion ever since, or during the administrations of S. P.
Rounds, T. E. Benedict and the present incumbent,
F. W. Palmer. His appointments and promotions have
been given him entirely without political infiuence. Dur¬
ing his occupancy of this position he has probably had
charge of the printing of more books with large editions
than any other foreman in the printing business. He
has also had under his charge more printers than any
other foreman. He was a member of the jury of award
of the class of printing, stationery, &c., at the Centen¬
nial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876.

Brilliant.—1. An exceedingly small size of printing
type, being in body half minion. It is a curiosity only,
although some small books have been composed in it.
In the point system it is three and a half points. 2. The
proposed name for a size of type of which the body
should equal three points, or half a nonpareil. This
title ought not to be used, as it has for some time been
appropriated to half minion.

This line la not in Biilliant.

Bring Up.—To bring up a form is to place overlays
on those parts in which the impression is defective, and
to cut away those portions in which it is too heavy, so
as to equalize the impression over the whole form. See
Making Ready.

Bristol Boards.—A class of very fine pasteboards,
originally chiefly used for drawing, but now employed
largely for printing purposes. They may be of different
thicknesses, as three ply, four ply.

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