American dictionary of printing and bookmaking

(New York :  H. Lockwood,  1894.)



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having double-size boxes. The space box with us is by
them appropriated to en quadrats, and a part is taken
from the i box, immediately bey end it, for five-em spaces.
The position of the smaller boxes bears no relation to
their situation in English offices, but there is a rude
alphabetical arrangement in the large lower-case letters.
When Roman is set the small capitals have the farthest
row, the capitals next, the third has the figures and the
remainder of the capitals, and the fourth row is accents.
The lower case is arranged nearly as the Fraktur case
is. The case is more crowded, as there are more char¬

In this country, where more German is set than any¬
where else away from the centre of Europe, the cases

ter, for the sake of appearance, is also in Roman, the
printer must have very much unused type. Both old-
style Roman and modern Roman are employed. The cut
of the latter is somewhat different from English faces,
as other patterns are followed. The types most used
for the body of a work are Bourgeoise and Corpus, but
sometimes Cicero. Quotations and notes are in Petit or
Nonpareille. Matter is rarely so profusely leaded as in
Prance, nor are margins so wide.

Capitalizing in German is done differently from that
in English. Every noun takes a capital, and not alone
proper nouns or those words which are constructively so.
When an adjective is preceded by a word which shows
it to be taken in a substantive sense it requires a capital.

AaBbCc     DdEeFfG

II   h     I   i   J   j       K   k   L    1    M    m

Nn     OoPp     Qq     RrSs     TtU     u     VvWwXxY     yZz


are double, as English cases are, and are laid somewhat
in the same way. The lay shown on page 230 is that
adopted by the New-Yorker Staats-Zeitung.

A peculiarity in the left-hand corner will strike every
American and English printer. It is two large boxes
left vacant to be used for extra e's, quadrats or for any
other sorts which should prove redundant in distribu¬
tion, or which might be needed in composition when the
ordinary boxes were not large enough.

German types do not conform to a general standard.
Two or three makers have a different system of points,
varying from each other and from English and American
standards. The names, with a somewhat approximate
American equivalent, are as follows:





in French

American Name.


.   .    4  .   .


Perl ....




5  .   .


Nonpareille .




6  .   .


Colonel    .   .




7  .   .


Petit    .   .   .




8   .   .


Bourgeoise (Borgis).


m .


Corpus (Garmond)   .


9   .    .

Long Primer.
Small Pica.

Discendian ....


10   .    ,

Cicero .   .   .




11   .    .


Mittel .   .   .




12   ,    ,


Tertia .   .   .




14   .    .

Great Primer.

Text    .   .   .




16   .    .


Four-line Minionette.





24   .   .





28   .    .

Double Great Primer.

Kleine Kanon




32   .    .

Double Paragon,

Grobe Kanon




40   .    .

Four-line Small Pica.

Kleine Sabon




64   .    .

Six-line Pica.

Grobe Sabon




68   .    .

Five-line Great Primer.

Kleine Missal




80  .    .

Seven-line Pica.

Grobe Missal




96   .   .

Nine-line Pica.

The basis of calculations is Cicero. The height to pa¬
per is rather greater than that of American types, but
varies much.

One great drawback which is found in every German
office is the necessity of keeping up fonts of both black-
letter and Roman. The former is much the most used,
particularly in commercial work in German towns, but
as many languages are there printed, and as scientific
books are chiefly done in Roman, while much other mat-

as nichts Neues, nothing new. The words which demand
this in a succeeding word are etwas, viel, wenig, nichts,
allerlei, genug and ahnlichen. Adjectives derived from
places or countries are written small, as frankfurtisch,
englisch, preussisch, Frankfort, English, Prussian. Ad¬
jectives which form a part of a compound proper name
take capitals, as das Schwarze Meer, the Black Sea.
The names of persons used as adjectives take capitals,
as Grimmsche Marchen, Grimm's stories; Didotsches
System, Didot's system; but where they are taken in a
general sense, not relating to the person from whom the
name is borrowed, small letters are used, as lutherische
Konfession, Lutheran confession. The first personal pro¬
noun is written with a small letter, as ich (I), but the per¬
son addressed is Sic (you). When the extreme of old-
fashioned politeness and formality is used, as in Euer
(you), that is also capitalized. Words in apposition, be¬
ing a proper name, although one is an adjective, are capi¬
talized, as Friedrich der Zweite, Frederick the Second.
Words are divided on the pronunciation and not on
the etymology. Thus lie- | ben, not lieb- | en; En- |
dung, not End- | ung. When, however, words have be¬
come joined together, either with or without prefixes or
suffixes, they are divided according to their originals,
when no violence is done to the pronunciation, as war-

I um, vor- I aus, her- | ein, beob- | achten. Inter- j esse,
Mikro- I skop. When a consonant comes between two
vowels it belongs to the second one, unless it violates
the rule concerning joining of words just given, as tre-

I ten, le- | sen, na- | hen. Double letters which are con¬
sonantal, as ch, sch, dt, ph and th, cannot be divided, and
both parts must go in the second line, as Bran- | die,
Orthogra- | phie, Sta- | dte, Verwan- | dte. One rule as
laid down is directly contrary to that which formerly
existed in English. In our tongue where the small s
ended a syllable the long f began one, but, for the sake
of marking the sharp pronunciation, words in German
which contain a double s in such a way that one ends
one syllable and a second one begins another are divided
hei- I ssen, ]t)ei-ffen, Fli- | sse, 3U=ffe. It is in Roman
characters that the two s's are used; in Fraktur the
common double s, ^, is employed. When two or more
consonants come together, unaffected by the previous
rules, the last syllable takes the last letter, and the other
is joined to the first syllable, as bar- | ten, Ach- | sel.
Fin- I ger. The double consonants st and sp are indi¬
visible ; they belong to the second line, as La-sten.   The
  Page 229