Bernier, François, Travels in the Mogul Empire A.D. 1656-1668

(Westminster, Eng. :  Constable,  1891.)



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A MEMOBANnuM Omitted lo be included in my first Work, to
complete the Map of Hindoustan, and make knoron the
revenues of the Great Mogol.

X HE better to understand what follows it is necessary
to know the signification of the following terms.

1.   Soubah} that is to say. Government and Province.

2.   Pragna}  that is, the  chief  City,  Burgh  or Village

which has many others subordinate to it, and where
the Rents are paid to the King, who is the absolute
Lord [Seigneur] of all the lands of his Empire.

3.   Serkar} that is the Exchequer of the King's income

from all sources [Tresors du Roy].

4.   Kazine} that is. Treasury.

5.   Roupie} the money of the Countiy, worth about thirty


1 Silbah, derived from the Arabic, originally a heap of money, or a
granary, hence a Province.

-2 Pargana, a tract of country comprising the lands of many villages ;
there are several Parganas in a Zilla (or Shire), and several Zillas
go to make up a Province.

3 Sir/ear, more familiarly ' circar,'as the ' Northern Circars.' ^The
word literally means a chief, a superior ; Bernier seems to use it in
the sense of a sub-division of a Province" in which a ' treasury' for rent
collection was situated.

* Khazdna, Bernier's rendering is the original meaning. It may
also be translated as the public revenue, the land-tax or rent.

^ Which is also Manouchi's and Tavernier's values, and makes the
rupee then = 2S. 3d.; see page 200, footnote ^

  Page 455