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buck apiece for it. It was very, very effective. It stopped the war. [Laughter] No, it was effective in terms of the image.

I don't know if I mentioned this before. 1199's position on issues was very, very carefully followed by activists and liberals and peace activists, civil rights people, and if an event was taking place, people would call up and say, “Is 1199 part of it?” Like the seal of approval, the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval 1199 put out. Therefore, a lot of the organizations, when they ran things, wanted very much to have 1199 to endorse it. First, it was a seal of approval. Secondly, they knew that we would bring people out, that it was not merely that we would pass a resolution, that if we endorsed something, we would turn out people for it, and we could turn out people.

This is an example of it. I remember, we had a fast for peace at the Community Church, where it was an all-day program of speakers coming to speak about it and people came and spent a day there and did not eat. I remember David Schoenbrun, Norman Thomas, Ben Spock, Irwin Corey, the whole business, all coming in to speak, all day long, on events about the issue. So the union was involved in all the demonstrations in Washington, sending large demonstrations, with 1199 hats all the time, right through the period.

I was involved in the broader movement outside the union, the coalitions that were forming, the left and the right, and I was always attending those meetings. David Livingston and I usually were at the meetings. We played a role, to a degree, in that campaign. Then we thought that it would be important that there be some kind of labor arm, some labor voice on the war because of the George Meany position. A few of us met. I remember Davis, myself, David Livingston, my brother Henry. I can't remember who else was there. Maybe one or two other people. Talked about what we could do, and that marked the beginning of forming the trade union division of SANE, where we had about twenty-five, thirty union leaders who agreed to be sponsors of this trade union division of SANE. We got out a letterhead and we put out a monthly four-page bulletin that went to labor leaders in the metropolitan area. We obviously arranged with SANE to become part of that thing. In return, Dave and I became members of the national board of SANE, and we started to meet with SANE at that time. We had a number of meetings. I remember I got Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., to one meeting. I forget now who were the other people we got to meetings. We would get 150-200 labor leaders, which was pretty good in New York. The people who joined it included Victor Goldbaum, who immediately dropped out because Jerry Wurf complained.

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