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Chapter 19: Carboxylic Acids

19.1 Carboxylic Acid Nomenclature
19.2 Structure and Bonding
19.3 Physical Properties
19.4 Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
19.5 Salts of Carboxylic Acids
19.6 Substituents and Acid Strength
19.7 Ionization of Substituted Benzoic Acids
19.8 Dicarboxylic Acids
19.9 Carbonic Acid

19.10 Sources of Carboxylic Acids
19.11 Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents
19.12 Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Preparation and Hydrolysis of Nitriles

19.13 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: A Review and a Preview
19.14 Mechanism of Acid-Catalyzed Esterification
19.15 Intramolecular Ester Formation: Lactones
19.16 a Halogenation of Carboxylic Acids. The Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction
19.17 Decarboxylation of Malonic Acid and Related Compounds
19.18 Spectroscopic Analysis of Carboxylic Acids
19.19 Summary

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