Volume 6, Chapter 4 -- Continuation of the Portuguese transactions in India, after the return of Don Stefano de Gama from Suez in 1541, to the Reduction of Portugal under the Dominion of Spain in 1581: *section index*


Volume 6, Chapter 4, Section 4 -- Government of India by Don Juan de Castro, from 1545 to 1548.

Khojah Zofar, who was now chief minister and favourite to the king of Cambaya, though he continued to keep up a fair correspondence with the Portuguese, yet with the perfidy so natural to a Moor, never ceased persuading his sovereign to endeavour to shake off the yoke by a second attempt to reduce the castle of Diu. For this purpose he collected a powerful army, yet endeavoured in the first place to attain his ends by the most infamous means of secret policy. With this view he gained over a Portuguese of a base character, named Ruy Freire, to poison the great cistern or reservoir of water, to set the magazine of the castle on fire, and to admit him by a concerted signal into the place. But this treacherous design was frustrated by the information of an Ethiopian, a Turk, and a female slave, who revealed the plot to the commander, Don Juan Mascarenhas, who had succeeded Emanuel de Sousa.

As Mascarenhas became aware of the storm that was gathering against him, he prepared to meet it as well as possible, and sent notice of his danger to the governor-general, Don Juan de Castro, and to all the neighbouring Portuguese commanders. The garrison in the castle of Diu at this time amounted only to 210 men. Of these Mascarenhas assigned 30 for the defence of each of the four bastions; his lieutenant had charge of a tower or bulwark over the gate with 20 men; another 20 were placed in a small detached work; and he retained 50 men as a body of reserve under his own immediate command, to act wherever the greatest danger might call for his presence.

By this time a considerable number of men were collected by the enemy in the city of Diu, among whom were 500 Turks sent from Mokha by the king of Zabid, and Khojah Zofar came on with all his power, resolving to attack the sea bastion by means of three castles well stored with cannon and ammunition, which were built upon a ship of vast size; within the castles were 200 Turks, who were intended to distract the attention of the defendants by continually pouring in all sorts of artificial fireworks. This device was however abortive, as Jacome Leite went by night in two small vessels with twenty men, and though discovered he succeeded in setting the floating castle on fire, a great part of which blew up with all the Turks, and the remainder of the ship burnt with so great a flame that the enemy was seen in whole battalions running to quench the fire. Seeing the enemy in clusters, Jacome pointed his cannon among them and killed many: After this exploit, he proceeded to the mouth of the river, where he took some vessels loaded with provisions belonging to the enemy, with which he returned to the fort to the great admiration of the whole garrison, having seven of his men wounded in this gallant and successful exploit.

Though frustrated in this design, Khojah Zofar persisted in his intentions of besieging the castle, for which purpose he began to rebuild the wall which had been destroyed by De Sousa.[365] This could not be prevented, though many of the workmen were killed by the cannon of the fort, and being at last brought to perfection Zofar planted upon it sixty pieces of large cannon, besides many of a small size. One of these cannons was of such extraordinary magnitude that it shook the whole island every time it was discharged, and it was managed with much expertness by a renegade Frenchman in the service of Zofar.

At this time Don Ferdinand de Castro, son to the governor, arrived with a reinforcement. Mascarenhas having expressed a desire of acquiring some intelligence from the enemy's camp, one Diego de Anaya Coutinno, a gentleman of note and of great strength, put on a helmet with a sword by his side and a spear in his hand, and let himself down from the wall under night. He soon discovered two Moors at some distance from the fort, one of whom he slew with his spear, and taking up the other in his arms ran with him to the gate of the fort, calling out for admission, and threw him in, to the great surprise and admiration of his companions. Coutinno had borrowed a helmet, which he had engaged his word to restore or die in its defence. It happened to fall off in the scuffle, and he did not miss it till demanded, by its owner. He immediately let himself down again from the wall to look for the helmet, which he found and restored.

Shortly afterwards an extraordinary movement was observed in the besieging army, of which Mascarenhas was desirous to know the cause. On this account six men sallied out at night from the castle and fell upon an advanced party of sixty Moors, some of whom they killed; but the rest awaking, and being joined by others, the Portuguese were forced to retreat after losing two of their number; but the remaining four brought in a prisoner along with them, who reported that the king of Cambaya was arrived from Champanel with 10,000 horse, on purpose to see the capture of the castle, which he was assured by Zofar must soon fall.

This exploit so incensed the king and Zofar, that they pressed the siege with the utmost fury, and did much harm to the works of the castle by incessant discharges from their numerous artillery. But the renegade Frenchman who managed their greatest gun was slain by a chance shot, and the gunner who succeeded him was so ignorant that he did more harm to his own party than to the Portuguese. All the neighbourhood continually resounded with the incessant noise of the cannon, mixed with the cries and groans of dying men; when a ball from the fort happened to go through the king's tent, and sprinkled him all over with the blood of one of his favourites, who was torn to pieces close by him. This so terrified the king that he immediately abandoned Diu, leaving the command of the horse to Juzar Khan, a valiant Abyssinian.

Khojah Zofar continued to press the siege, and there was much slaughter and destruction on both sides; but this was more evident and prejudicial in the castle, owing to the small space and the weakness of the garrison. Mascarenhas on his part exerted every means for defence, always repairing to wherever there was most danger, as desirous of gaining equal honour with Silveyra who had so gallantly defended the same place only a few years before. He was no less fortunate in courageous women than Silveyra, as those now in the castle encouraged the men to fight valiantly, and both assisted and relieved them in the labour of repairing the walls. On one occasion that some Turks had got within the walls and had taken post in a house, one of these valiant females ran there with a spear and fought against the enemy, till Mascarenhas came up with his reserve and put them all to the sword. Zofar used every effort and device to fill up the ditches and to batter down the walls of the castle; but equal industry was exerted by the besieged to repair the breaches and to clear out the ditches, the prime gentry doing as much duty on those occasions as the private soldiers and masons, repairing every night such parts of the walls and bastions as had been ruined in the day.

Astonished to see all the defences thus restored, and angry at the obstinate resistance of so small a garrison, Zofar made a furious assault upon the castle, but had his head carried off by a cannon-ball. "In this violent death he fulfilled the prediction of his mother at Otranto, who having in vain endeavoured to prevail upon him to return into the bosom of the church, used to superscribe her letters to him in the following manner. To Khojah Zofar my son, at the gates of hell." He was succeeded by his son Rumi Khan, who inherited his fortune and command, and was as eager as his father to reduce the castle of Diu. Being in great straits, Mascarenhas was under the necessity of applying to the governor-general at Goa and the commanders of the neighbouring garrisons for reinforcements, on which occasion a priest was employed, who ran great danger, as the sea was at this season scarcely navigable: But then Portugal had some decii and reguli, while it now has only the grief of wanting such patriots.[366]

In the meantime Rumi Khan and Juzar Khan gave a general assault, particularly directing their efforts against the bastions of St. John and St. Thomas, where they found a vigorous resistance and lost a prodigious number of men. Yet numbers at length prevailed, and the enemy gained a temporary possession of the bastion of St. Thomas. The garrison, adding fury to despair, made so desperate an effort to recover the bastion that they made a wonderful slaughter of the numerous assailants who had penetrated their works, throwing headlong from the wall such as had escaped the sword, insomuch that the bastion and the ditch below were heaped with dead bodies.

Rumi Khan spent the succeeding night in prayers and processions to propitiate Mahomet, and next morning renewed the assault with equal fury. But after mounting the two bastions, he was at length forced to retreat with the loss of near 2000 men, among whom was Juzar Khan the Abyssinian general, who was succeeded in his command by his uncle of the same name. In this action the Portuguese lost seven men. Several other assaults were given, with similar success. In one of these the fire was so close and furious that several of the Portuguese who were clad in cotton garments had their clothes set on fire, on which they ran and dipt themselves in water, after which they returned to their posts. Such as happened to have skin coats escaped this danger; and as Mascarenhas noticed this circumstance, he caused the gilt leather hangings of his apartments to be made into coats for his soldiers.

As the enemy had raised a mount near the castle which overlooked the walls, whence they greatly annoyed the enemy [[=the Portuguese]], Don Juan and Don Pedro de Almeyda sallied out with an hundred men and destroyed that work, killing 300 Moors. At another time Martin Botello went out with ten men to endeavour to make some prisoners, to procure intelligence. This party fell upon a post of the enemy occupied by eighteen men, all of whom fled except one Nubian, who bravely endeavoured to defend himself against the whole eleven. Botello closed with him, and finding him hard to overcome while he touched the ground with his feet, raised him in his arms as Hercules did Anteus, and carried him to the fort by main strength. The assaults were frequently renewed, and the besieged were worn out with fatigue and reduced to the last extremity by famine, being forced to feed even upon nauseous vermin. A crow or a vulture taken while feeding upon the dead bodies was so great a dainty for the sick that it sold for five crowns. Even the ammunition was almost spent.

In this extremity, the enemy gave a fresh assault and forced their way into the bastion of St. John, whence they were driven out. Scarcely had they retired when the bastion blew up with a vast explosion, carrying up 73 of the garrison into the air, ten of whom came down alive. Among these was Diego de Sotomayor, who fell into the fort with his spear still in his hand. One soldier fell in a similar manner among the enemy, and was immediately slain. It was no fable that armed men were seen in the air on this occasion.[367] Foreseeing the danger, as he believed from the retirement of the enemy so suddenly that they had secretly caused it to be undermined, Mascarenhas gave orders for the Portuguese soldiers to retire from the bastion; but one Reynoso prevented them from doing so, unaware of what was intended, upbraiding them for cowardice.

Thirteen thousand of the enemy immediately attacked the breach which was formed by the explosion, and were at first resisted only by five men, till Mascarenhas came up with fifteen more. Even the women came forward to assist in defending the breach; and the priest, who had returned from carrying advice to the neighbouring Portuguese forts, appeared carrying a crucifix aloft, and encouraging the men to behave themselves manfully. After a long and furious contest, the enemy retired on the approach of night, after losing 300 men, and Mascarenhas employed the whole night in repairing the breach. The enemy renewed their attacks every day, but with no better success, trusting to their vast superiority in numbers, that they would at last wear out and destroy the garrison. Rumi Khan began again to undermine the works, even piercing through rocks that were in the way; but Mascarenhas by means of a countermine disappointed his expectations, as the mine exploded back upon the enemy and killed many of their own men.

Don Alvaro de Castro, son to the governor-general, was at this time sent with supplies and reinforcements, and had to contend against the winds and waves through almost incredible storms, yet arrived at Bassen without loss. From thence Antonio Moniz Baretto with eight gentlemen crossed over to Diu in a boat, being the first reinforcement; who though few were no small comfort to the besieged by their bravery. Next came Luis de Melo with nine men; then Don George and Don Duarte de Menezes with seventeen; after them Antonio de Ataide and Francisco Guillerme with fifty each; and Ruy Freyre the factor of Chaul with twenty-four. With these reinforcements Mascarenhas fell upon the enemy, who then possessed some of the works of the castle, and had even established themselves in the bastion of St. James. The enemy had now lost 5000 men and the besieged 200, but having as many more left, scarcely half of whom were fit for duty, when Don Alvaro de Castro arrived with 400 men and a sufficient supply of ammunition, having taken by the way a ship belonging to Cambaya richly laden.

The joy of this relief was soon damped by the mutinous disposition of the soldiers brought by Don Alvaro; who, fearful of the mines of the enemy, clamorously demanded to be led into the field against the enemy; and when the governor prudently refused compliance, they broke out into open mutiny in defiance of all discipline, then scarce known or at least not respected by the Portuguese. Being in danger of perishing in the castle by his own men, Mascarenhas chose rather to die in the field among the enemy, and made a sally with almost 500 men in three bodies. At the first push the advanced post of the enemy was gained, and they were forced to retire to their main works. Those who had insolently compelled their commander to this extravagant measure, now stood heartless at the foot of the trenches, while others who had taken no part in the mutiny acted courageously. After a severe reproof from Mascarenhas they took heart and mounted the works, but the whole army of the enemy attacking them, the Portuguese were forced to retire in disorder.

The enemy followed up the runaways, and 5000 of them under Mojate Khan endeavoured to gain possession of the bastion of St. Thomas, but were bravely repulsed by Luis de Sousa. In this action sixty men were slain on the side of the Portuguese, among whom were Don Alvaro de Castro, who was mortally wounded in the head. About this time likewise the enemy gained temporary possession of the bastion of St. James and even turned its cannon against the garrison, but were driven out by Vasco de Cuna and Luis de Almeida, who had just arrived with a reinforcement. The latter went out soon afterwards with Payo Rodriguez and Pedro Alfonso in three caravels, and soon returned with two great ships belonging to Mecca and several other vessels, whose cargoes were worth 50,000 ducats.

In the beginning of October 1545, when the siege had lasted eight months, Don Juan de Castro set out from Goa with a powerful armament for its relief. As the fleet, consisting of above 90 vessels, was scattered during the voyage, Don Juan put in at Baseen to wait for its reunion, and sent in the meantime Don Emanuel de Lima with a squadron to scour the coast, who took several vessels. At length the Portuguese fleet made its appearance in the sea of Diu, to the great amazement and dismay of the enemy, who had recently received a supply of 5000 men from the king of Cambaya.

Having landed his troops, it was resolved by Don Juan de Castro to march and attack the enemy, chiefly on the suggestion of the experienced Don Garcia de Sa. The Portuguese army was accordingly marshalled in the following order. Don Juan Mascarenhas, the valiant defender of the castle, led the van consisting of 500 men. Two other bodies of equal force were led by Don Alvaro de Castro,[368] and Don Emanuel de Lima. Don Juan de Castro led the reserve, composed of 1000 Portuguese and a body of Indian soldiers. Among the men were several Portuguese women in men's clothes, who went principally to assist those that might be wounded. The lieutenant-governor was left in charge of the fort with 300 men.

Having prepared for battle by the sacraments of the church, this small army marched out at break of day of the 11th November 1545, to attack the numerous forces of the enemy, who were strongly entrenched and defended by a powerful train of artillery. At this time two Portuguese gentlemen who had challenged each other agreed that he who first mounted the works of the enemy should be deemed conqueror; both honourably strove to gain the victory, and both died gloriously in the attempt. After a severe conflict in which the Portuguese sustained some loss, they at length mounted the works, and Mascarenhas and Don Alvaro de Castro, having each gained possession of a tower or bulwark, made room for the army drawing up in the open field in the rear of the hostile works.

Twice was the ensign carrying the royal standard thrown down from the enemy's works, and twice remounted. Rumi Khan used every effort, backed by his numerous army, to drive the Portuguese from his entrenchments, but unsuccessfully. Being joined by Juzar Khan, who had been worsted by Mascarenhas, they united their troops and renewed their fight, and distressed the Portuguese exceedingly; when father Antonio de Cazal appeared in the ranks carrying a crucifix aloft on the point of a lance, encouraging the troops to behave courageously. By great and valiant exertions, after covering the field with dead and wounded Moors, Rumi Khan was constrained to retreat in disorder; but having rallied his troops, the Portuguese in their turn were thrown into disorder. Don Juan however exerted himself to admiration and, restoring his men to order, renewed the battle.

At this time a stone or bullet broke off an arm from the crucifix, and the priest calling on the soldiers to avenge the sacrilege, they fell on with such fury, that after incredible efforts they drove the enemy into the city with vast slaughter. Mascarenhas, Don Alvaro de Lima, and Don Juan de Castro successively forced their way into the city with their respective battalions by several avenues, making the streets and houses run with blood. The women shared the fate of the men, and even children were slain at their mothers' breasts. In plundering the houses, gold, silver, and jewels were alone attended to by the soldiery, other things though of value being slighted as cumbrous.

Rumi Khan and the other officers of the enemy sallied with about 8000 men; against whom Don Juan de Castro, with the assistance of his son and Mascarenhas, again engaged, and after a bloody battle gained a complete victory. In this last engagement, Gabriel Teixeyra killed the standard-bearer of the enemy, and dragged the standard of Cambaya about the field proclaiming victory. George Nunez brought out the head of Rumi Khan from among the dead, and presented it to Don Juan. Juzar Khan was wounded and made prisoner. In this great battle the enemy lost 5000 men, among whom, besides Rumi Khan, Azede Khan, Lu Khan, and other men of note were slain. The Portuguese, according to one account, lost 100 men, while others say only 34. Many thousands were taken, with forty pieces of cannon of extraordinary size, besides 160 others, and a prodigious quantity of ammunition. Free plunder was allowed to the troops, by which many acquired great riches and all were satisfied.

Many of the Portuguese signalized their valour in this action. The governor-general acted the part of a valiant soldier, as well as that of a prudent general. Mascarenhas, after sustaining a siege of eight months, distinguished himself above all others. Of Don Alvaro de Castro, it is sufficient to say that he acted like his father. The ensign Barbado, though several times thrown down, as often remounted the works of the enemy. Father Antonio del Cazal, by presenting to view the image of life banished the fear of death. Many others distinguished their valour, some of whom survived and others were slain. The enemy confessed that, one day during the siege, they saw over the church in the castle a beautiful woman in the air, clothed in white, and so brilliantly illuminated with rays of light that they could not look upon her; and that this day there were some men in the field armed with lances who did them much harm. The king of Cambaya was so enraged with the loss he had sustained in this siege, that he ordered twenty-eight Portuguese prisoners to be torn in pieces in his presence.

Great was the joy at Goa on the news being received of the events at Diu, which were carried thither by Diego Rodriguez de Azevedo, who likewise carried a message from Don Juan de Castro requesting the city to lend him 20,000 pardaos for the use of the army, sending a lock of his whiskers in pawn for the faithful repayment of the money. The city respectfully returned the proposed pledge, and sent him more money than he wanted, and even the ladies of Goa on this occasion sent him their earrings, necklaces, bracelets, and other jewels to be applied to the public service. But the governor punctually restored all exactly as sent, having been amply supplied by the capture of a rich ship of Cambaya. Having restored the castle to a better condition than before the siege, Don Juan de Castro sailed for Goa, leaving a garrison of 500 men in the castle under Don George de Menezes, with six ships to secure the coast. The city also was now better inhabited than ever, through the good usage of the governor to the Moors.

Don Juan de Castro returned from Diu to Goa on the 11th of April 1546, where he was received with universal demonstrations of joy, and was conducted into the city in a splendid triumph, prepared on purpose after the manner of the ancient Romans. The city gates and the houses of the streets he had to pass through were hung with silk, all the windows were thronged with women splendidly dressed, and every part of the city resounded with music and the din of cannon, all the ships in the bay being richly adorned with numerous flags and streamers. Don Juan entered the city under a splendid canopy; and at the gates his hat was taken off, and his brows adorned by a crown of laurel, of which likewise a branch was put into his hand.

Before him went the priest, carrying the crucifix, as he had done in the late battle, and next to him was the royal standard. Juzar Khan followed with his eyes fixed on the ground, perhaps that he might not see the standard of his sovereign trailing in the dust, while those of the Portuguese floated triumphant in the air. After him came 600 prisoners in chains. In the front were all the captured cannon, and great quantities of arms of all sorts in carts artificially disposed [[=artfully arranged]]. The governor walked upon leaves of gold and silver and rich silks, all the ladies as he passed sprinkling him from their windows with odoriferous waters and strewing him with flowers. On hearing an account of this triumph, queen Catharine said "That Don Juan had overcome like a Christian, but had triumphed like a heathen."

Scarcely was this triumph ended when the governor found it necessary to send a force of 120 horse, 800 foot, and 1000 Indians, to expel some troops sent by Adel Khan to possess the districts of Salsete and Bardes, because the conditions on which he had ceded these to the Portuguese had not been fulfilled. Diego de Almeyda, who commanded these troops, easily executed his commission, as 4000 men belonging to Adel Khan, who were stationed at Cowlii, fled at his approach. Adel Khan however sent them back again, with 9000 additional men, together with a company of renegado Portuguese, commanded by Gonzalo Vaz Coutinno, who, to avoid the punishment due to his crimes, had deserted to the enemy. As Almeyda found himself too weak to resist this great force, he was forced to retire; on which the governor marched in person against the enemy with 3000 men in five battalions, and was soon afterwards joined by Francisco de Melo with about 1500 more. On the approach of this force the enemy retired to the fort of Ponda, followed by the Portuguese army, on which occasion Don Alvaro de Castro, who led the van, gained possession of a ford defended by 2000 musketeers. The main body of the enemy, twelve or thirteen thousand strong, were drawn up in good order about the fort, but fled at the first fire, leaving the fort entirely empty.

The victorious are sure to find friends. Cidoza king of Canara sent to congratulate Don Juan de Castro upon this victory, and to propose a new alliance with the Portuguese, which was accordingly concluded upon advantageous terms, as always happens upon such occasions. This kingdom of Charnataca, corruptly named Canara, had no sovereign prince before the year 1200, when one Boca, a shepherd, assumed the government, styling himself Rao which signifies emperor, a title that has been continued by all his successors. This king, in memorial of a victory gained by him over the king of Delhi, built the famous city of Visajanagur, corruptly called Bisnagar. The crown continued in his line till usurped by Narsinga, from whom the kingdom took that name, having been formerly called Bisnagar from that of the city. Afterwards king Malek sent also to confirm the peace between him and the Portuguese, more through hatred to Adel Khan who was defeated, than from love to the victorious Portuguese.

Hearing in 1546 that the king of Cambaya intended again to besiege Diu with a larger army than ever, Don Juan de Castro prepared with all diligence to relieve it, borrowing money from the city of Goa for the expences of the expedition; and on this occasion the women of Goa sent him their jewels by the hands of their young daughters, complaining that he had not used them before, and requesting him to do so now; but he sent all back accompanied with presents. Having fitted out 160 sail of various kinds of vessels with a large military force, Don Juan sailed for Basseen and thence to Surat, where Don Alvaro had arrived before the fleet, and had taken a work with several cannon from the Moors. Sailing thence to Baroch, the army of the king of Cambaya was seen covering the whole plain, to the amount of 150,000 men, with 80 large cannon in front.

Don John was anxious to land with his small army of 3000 men to give battle to the king, but was dissuaded from the rash attempt by his most experienced officers. He went on therefore to Diu, where he appointed Luis Falcam to command the castle, as Mascarenhas was then about to return to Portugal. After this he went along the coast of the Guzerat dominions, landing in many places, and destroying every thing with fire and sword. The strong and beautiful cities of Pate and Patane, being abandoned by the inhabitants, were utterly destroyed; two hundred vessels were destroyed in their ports, and a prodigious booty was obtained. Dabul also, though in the dominions of Adel Khan, was treated in a similar manner, in revenge for the ravages committed by the orders of that sovereign in the districts of Salsete and Bardes, which were occupied by Calabate Khan at the head of 20,000 men.

As Calabate Khan seemed disposed to retain possession of these districts, Don Juan went against him with 1500 horse and 4000 foot; but the enemy fled in all haste to the Gauts, leaving their tents and baggage behind. The Portuguese army pursued; and being resisted by Calabate Khan in person, with 2000 horse at a ford or pass, that general was unhorsed and slain by a Portuguese officer named Almeyda, after which the enemy were defeated with great slaughter. The scimitar, dagger, chain, and rings of the slain general were estimated at the value of 80,000 crowns. After this victory, Don Juan ravaged the whole country below the gauts belonging to Adel Khan, destroying everything before him, burning all the towns and woods, and carrying off the cattle and provisions. From this destructive expedition he returned to Goa, which he again entered in triumph.

About this time the king of Acheen in Sumatra, an irreconcilable enemy to the Portuguese, sent a fleet of sixty vessels against Malacca with 5000 soldiers, among whom were 500 men called Orobalones or the golden bracelets, from wearing that ornament in distinction of their bravery; but the principal force consisted of a regiment of Turkish janisaries commanded by a valiant Moor. This man landed in the night near Malacca, and it is said that the garrison was alarmed and put on their guard by a flock of geese, as the capitol was in ancient times. The garrison of Malacca was then very weak, yet the enemy were forced to reimbark, after burning two Portuguese ships then ready to sail. On returning from their intended attack on Malacca, the enemy took seven poor fishermen, whose noses, ears, and feet they cut off and sent them in that mutilated condition to the commander at Malacca, George de Melo, with a letter written with their blood, challenging him to come out and fight them at sea. Melo was by no means disposed to accept this challenge, having a very inadequate force, and because he had only eight small vessels which lay aground in a state unfit for service.

But the great St. Francis Xavier, who was then in Malacca, prevailed on some merchants to be at the expence of fitting out these vessels, and upon Melo to go out against the enemy, promising that two galliots would come by a certain time to his aid. When the time was near expired, two galliots actually made their appearance and came into the harbour, though intended upon a different course. The saint went on board, and found that they were commanded by Diego Suarez de Melo, commonly called the Gallego, and his son Baltazar, whom he prevailed upon to join in the attack of the Acheenese. The ten small vessels were accordingly fitted out and manned by 230 men, and set sail in search of the enemy under the command of Don Francisco Deza.

After ranging about for two months in search of the Acheen fleet, when at length about to return to Malacca, Deza found them in the river Parles, where he resolutely attacked them one Sunday morning and, after an obstinate engagement, gained a complete victory, in which 4000 of the enemy were slain. Several of the Acheen ships were sunk, and almost all the rest taken, of which the Portuguese brought in twenty-five to Malacca, with 300 pieces of cannon, and about 1000 firelocks, having only lost twenty-five men according to one account, while some said only four. St. Francis was preaching at Malacca when this battle took place, and suddenly pausing in the middle of his discourse, he distinctly related all the particulars of the victory to his auditors, who were in great anxiety for the fate of their ships, having received no news of them during two months. His prophecy was verified a few days afterwards by their triumphant arrival.

Don Juan de Castro began his operations in January 1548, by the entire destruction of all that part of the western coast of India which belonged to Adel Khan. From the river Charopa two leagues from Goa, to that of Cifardam, which divides the dominions of Adel Khan from that of the Nizam, he spared neither living creature, vegetable, nor dwelling of any kind.

When the news of the glorious termination of the siege of Diu was received at Lisbon, the king sent out a greater fleet than usual to India, and honoured Don Juan with extraordinary favours for his good services. Besides a present in money, he continued him in the government, raising his rank from governor-general to the dignity of viceroy, and appointed his son Don Alvaro admiral of the Indian seas. But Don Juan was almost dead when these honours reached him, being sick of a disease which now-a-days kills no one, for even diseases die! He was heart-broken by the cowardly behaviour of a Portuguese force that had been sent to Aden, and the rash conduct of his son at Xael, in both of which they had suffered severe losses.

Finding himself dying, he publicly asked pardon of many for having written against them to the king; and being unable to manage the affairs of government, he appointed a select council to supply his place. Calling the members into his presence, he said "Though he neither hoped nor wished to live, yet it behoved him to be at some expence while he remained alive; and having no money, he entreated they would order him a small supply from the royal revenues, that he might not die for want." Then laying his hand on a missal, with his eyes lifted up to heaven, he solemnly swore, "That he had on no occasion converted the money belonging to the king, or to any other person, to his own use; and that he had never engaged in trade to increase his own fortune." He desired that this his solemn declaration might be recorded. He soon afterwards expired in the arms of St. Francis Xavier, on the 6th of June 1548, in the 48th year of his age. All the treasure found in his private cabinet was three ryals and a bloody scourge.

Don Juan was an excellent scholar, being particularly skilled in Latin and the mathematics. During his government of India he did not allow himself to be actuated by pride, as others had done before and after him, and always valued and promoted his officers for their merits. He so much loved that everyone should act becomingly, that seeing one day a fine suit of clothes on passing a tailor's shop, and being told that it was intended for his son, he cut it in pieces, desiring someone to tell the young man to provide arms, not fine clothes.

[Footnote 365: This second siege of Diu appears to have commenced about the beginning of March 1545.--E.]
[Footnote 366: It is hardly necessary to observe that this is the expression of D. Faria in the seventeenth century, when Portugal groaned under the yoke of the Austrian sovereigns of Spain.--E.]
[Footnote 367: This is an evident allusion of De Faria to the ridiculous reports so often propagated among the Portuguese and Spaniards of those days, of heavenly champions aiding them in battle against the infidels.--E.]
[Footnote 368: This gentleman has been said only a little way before, to have been mortally wounded. He must only have been severely wounded on that former occasion; or perhaps it might have been Don Ferdinand, another son of the governor, who was killed.--E.]



Volume 6, Chapter 4, Section 5 -- Transactions of the Portuguese in India, from 1548 to 1564, under several Governors.[369]

Immediately on the death of Don Juan the first patent of succession was opened, in which Don Juan Mascarenhas was named; but he had gone to Lisbon to seek the reward of his gallant defence of Diu, which he now missed. The second named Don George Telo, who was also absent. In the third, Gracia de Sa was nominated to the succession, an officer of much experience in the affairs of India. Soon afterwards, he received an embassy from Adel Khan to solicit peace, which was concluded much to the advantage of the Portuguese. The Zamorin, Nizam-al-mulk, Kothb-al-mulk king of Golconda, the Rajah of Canara, and several other princes of India sent splendid embassies to confirm the peace; and at length, Sultan Mahmud king of Guzerat or Cambaya, tired of the unfortunate war in which he had been long engaged with the Portuguese, made pacific overtures, and a treaty was concluded to the credit and advantage of the Portuguese.

In the course of this year, 1548, a bloody war broke out between the kings of Siam and Pegu on the following occasion: the king of Siam happened to possess a white elephant, a singular curiosity, much coveted by all the princes of the east, and the king of Pegu demanded that it should be given up to him in token of superiority. This was refused by the king of Siam, and the king of Pegu invaded Siam with a numerous army, reducing the king of Siam to such straits that he was willing to make peace on any conditions, except delivering up the white elephant, even agreeing to give up one of his own daughters, and to send a woman of noble birth yearly as an acknowledgement of vassalage. But as the terms were not performed, the king of Pegu again marched into the kingdom of Siam with a prodigious army of a million and a half of men and 4000 elephants. Above 2000 workmen preceded the king, and set up every night for his lodgment a stately wooden palace, richly painted and adorned with gold. On this march the king of Pegu constructed a prodigious bridge of boats over the rapid river Menam, a full league in length, for the passage of his army.

In the course of this march, the army of Pegu was obstructed by a strong entrenchment defended by 25,000 Siamese troops. Diego Suarez de Melo, who served in the army of Pegu with 180 Portuguese, went against this entrenchment with his own small battalion and 30,000 Peguers; and carried the work with a prodigious slaughter of the Siamese. The army of Pegu at length besieged the city of Odia, in which the king of Siam resided. Odia is eight leagues in circumference, and was surrounded by a strong wall on which 4000 cannon were mounted, and was farther defended by a wide and deep wet ditch, and by a garrison of 60,000 combatants, among whom were 50 Portuguese commanded by Diego Pereyra.

After continuing the siege for some time, being unable to prevail on the Portuguese under Pereyra to desert the service of the king of Siam, the king of Pegu abandoned Odia, and besieged the city of Camambee, in which the treasures of Siam were deposited. That place was strongly fortified, and defended by 20,000 men with so much valour that the Peguers were again obliged to desist. At this time Xemindoo rebelled against the king of Pegu, who sent Diego Suarez against him with 200 Portuguese. Suarez pursued the rebel to the city of Cevadi, but Xemindoo slipped past him and took possession of the city of Pegu, where he was favoured by the inhabitants. The queen fled into the castle, where she was defended by twenty Portuguese till the king came up with his army and put the rebels to flight.

The army then entered the city and put all to the sword, men, women, and children, and every living thing, sparing those only who took refuge in the house of Suarez, which the king had ordered to be exempted from this military execution, and in which above 12,000 saved themselves. The plunder on this occasion was immense, of which three millions fell to the share of Suarez, who was so much in favour with the king, that he pardoned a Portuguese at his intercession who had supplied the rebels with ammunition.

The king of Pegu was soon afterwards murdered in the beautiful city of Zatan by the Ximi or governor of that place, who immediately had himself proclaimed king; but was in his turn taken and beheaded by the former rebel Xemindoo, who usurped the crown. One Mandaragri, who had married a sister of the former king, raised an army and claimed the crown in right of his wife; and having defeated that first rebel in battle, he fled to the mountains, where he married the daughter of a peasant, to whom he revealed his name and rank. She communicated this intelligence to her father, who delivered him up to the new king, by whom he was beheaded. Being much displeased with the people of Pegu, Mandaragri built a new city near that place. He soon afterwards raised an immense army, with which he reduced many of the neighbouring provinces. But a new rebellion broke out at Pegu in his absence, by which the queen was forced to take refuge in the castle; where she chiefly owed her safety to about forty Portuguese, who defended her till the king came up and vanquished the rebels; after which he rewarded the brave Portuguese with riches and honour.

About this time likewise, the inhabitants of Chincheo, the second Portuguese colony in China, being in a flourishing condition, became forgetful of the sad fate of Liampo, formerly mentioned, which had been destroyed through their insolence and cupidity. Ayres Coello de Sousa, who was judge of the orphans and proveditar for the dead, committed many villanies to get hold of 12,000 ducats belonging to an Armenian merchant who had died there, and of 8000 ducats from some Chinese merchants, under pretence that this sum was due by them to the deceased. By these and other insolencies, the Chinese were so provoked that they destroyed Chincheo, as they had formerly done Liampo, only 30 Portuguese escaping out of 500 who lived there. These and some other Portuguese went over to the island of Lampezau; and they afterwards, in 1557, obtained leave to settle in the island of Goaxam, where they built the city of Macao.

While endeavouring to devise means for the relief of the soldiers, who were in great want, Gracia de Sa died suddenly in July 1549, at 70 years of age, being much regretted for his prudence, affability, and integrity. On the patents of succession being opened, George Cabral was found first in nomination. This officer was a man of good birth and known worth, and had gone a short while before to assume the command at Basseen. He was very unwilling to assume the government, as it deprived him of the command which he was to have held for four years, and was afraid that another would soon come from Portugal to supersede him in the supreme authority; but his lady Donna Lucretia Fiallo prevailed upon him to accept the honour to which he seemed so averse, and which she ardently desired; and he accordingly returned to Goa to assume the high office. Cabral deserved to have long enjoyed the post of governor-general, and Portuguese India was indebted to his wife for the short period of his rule. Soon after his installation, news was brought that the Turks were fitting out an hundred sail at Suez to transport an army to India; on which Cabral diligently prepared to meet the storm, by collecting ships from the different ports.

At this time the Zamorin and the rajah of Pimienta entered into a league against the rajah of Cochin. The rajah of Pimienta took the field with 10,000 Nayres, and was opposed by the rajah of Cochin with his men, assisted by 600 Portuguese troops under Francisco de Sylva, who commanded in the fort at Cochin. Sylva pressed for an accommodation, which was consented to by the rajah on reasonable terms; but the treaty was broken off by the rash and violent conduct of Sylva. The armies engaged in battle, in which the rajah of Pimienta was mortally wounded and carried off the field, upon which his troops fled and were pursued into their city with great slaughter, and the royal palace set on fire. This was considered as a heinous affront by the Nayres of Pimienta, who rallied and fell with such fury on the victors that they were forced to a disorderly retreat, in which Sylva and above fifty Portuguese were slain.

About 5000 of the Pimienta Nayres, who had taken an oath to revenge the death of their rajah or to die in the attempt, made an irruption into the territory of Cochin where they did much damage; and while engaged with the Cochin troops, Henry de Sousa marched against them with some Portuguese troops, and defeated them with great slaughter. The joy occasioned by this victory was soon damped by the approach of the Zamorin at the head of 140,000 men. The Zamorin encamped with 100,000 of these at Chembe, while the tributary or allied Malabar princes with the other 40,000 took post in the island of Bardela.

Upon the first advice of this invasion, Cabral collected the armament which had been destined against the Turks, consisting of above 100 sail of different kinds, with 4000 soldiers. He sent on Emanuel de Sousa with four ships, ordering him with these and the force already at Cochin to use every effort to confine the Malabar princes to the island of Bardela, till he should be able to get there with the main army, which orders he effectually executed. Having destroyed Tiracole, Coulete, and Paniane, Cabral landed at Cochin, where his army was increased to 6000 men, and where the Rajah was ready with 40,000 of his subjects. Being ready to attack the island, the Malabar princes hung out a white flag for a parley, and even agreed to put themselves into the hands of the governor on promise of their lives; but they delayed, and Cabral resolved to attack them next day. When next day came, he was again hindered by a violent flood. And the next day after, when on the point of performing one of the most brilliant actions that had ever been done in India, he was stopped by the sudden arrival at Cochin of Don Alfonso de Noronha as viceroy of India; who would neither allow him to proceed, nor would he execute what was so well begun, but allowed the Malabar princes to escape with their whole army.[370]

While Cabral remained at Cochin, waiting for an opportunity to embark for Portugal in the homeward-bound ships, there was a report one night about the middle of February 1550, that 8000 sworn Nayres were on their march to assault the city. He hastened to the gates with Emanuel de Sousa, intending to march against the enemy at daybreak; but being hindered by the council of Cochin, he remained with a competent force to defend the city, and sent Emanuel with the native troops and 1500 Portuguese against the invaders, who were doing everything that rage and malice could suggest in a neighbouring town. After a desperate engagement, the amoucos or devoted Nayres were defeated with great slaughter with the loss of 50 Portuguese. Cabral embarked well pleased with this successful exploit against the sworn Nayres, and was well received in Portugal, as he justly merited, though contrary to the usual custom of that court.

This year there was born at Goa, of Canarin parents, a hairy monster like a monkey, having a round head and only one eye in the forehead, over which it had horns, and its ears were like those of a kid. When received by the midwife, it cried with a loud voice, and stood up on its feet. The father put it into a hencoop, whence it got out and flew upon its mother; on which the father killed it by pouring scalding water on its head, and could scarcely cut off the head it was so hard. He burnt it. But when the story came to be known, he was punished for the murder, and the body was exposed to public view.[371]

Don Alfonso de Noronha was promoted to the viceroyalty of India from being governor of Ceuta, but was subjected to the control of a council, by whose advice he was ordered to conduct the government of India. He had orders from court to send back to Portugal all the new Christians or converted Jews, many of whom had gone out to India with their families. It had been better to have banished them from both countries. The new viceroy was received at Goa with universal joy, more owing perhaps to the general dislike towards him who lays down authority than from love for him who takes it up. The Arabs of Catifa in the Persian Gulf had admitted the Turks to take possession of the fort in that city, to the great displeasure of the King of Ormuz, on whom it had been dependent, and who therefore applied for aid to the viceroy to reduce the refractory or revolted vassals. The king of Basrah had also been expelled from his kingdom by the Turks, yet kept the field with an army of 30,000 men, and sent for assistance from the viceroy, to whom he offered leave to erect a fort at his capital, and to grant many valuable privileges to the Portuguese.

The viceroy accordingly sent his nephew, Antonio de Norenha, to the assistance of these two kings with 1200 men in nineteen vessels. Antonio was joined at Ormuz by 3000 native troops, in conjunction with whom he besieged Catifa, which was defended by 400 Turks. After a brave but unavailing resistance, the garrison fled by night, but were pursued and routed. As the general of the troops of Ormuz was unwilling to engage for the future defence of this fort, it was undermined for the purpose of destroying it; but being unskilfully managed, the mine exploded unexpectedly, and forty of the Portuguese were buried under its ruins. Noronha then sailed to the mouth of the Euphrates, on purpose to assist the king of Basrah; but he was induced to believe, by a cunning Turkish pacha, that the king of Basrah meant to betray him, on which he ingloriously returned to Ormuz, where he learnt the deceit when too late.

The sultan of the Turks was so much displeased with the Portuguese for what they had done at Catifa and attempted at Basrah, that he sent an expedition against Ormuz of 16,000 men, commanded by an old pirate named Pirbec. The Turk in the first place besieged Muscat for near a month, and at length obliged the garrison to capitulate; but broke the articles and chained the captain and sixty men to the oars. He afterwards proceeded against Ormuz, where Don Alvaro de Noronha commanded with nine hundred men in the fort, where he had provided ammunition and provisions for a long siege, and into which the king with his wife and children and some of the chief people of the court had gone for shelter.

The Turk landed his men and raised batteries against the fort, which he cannonaded incessantly for a whole month; but finding that he lost many of his men and had no prospect of success, he plundered the city, and went over to the island of Kishom, to which many of the principal people of Ormuz had withdrawn, where he got a considerable booty and then retired to Basrah. The viceroy had been informed of the danger to which Ormuz was exposed, and fitted out a fleet in which he embarked in person for its relief; but hearing at Diu, on his way to the Persian Gulf, that Ormuz was out of danger, he sailed back to Goa.

On his return unsuccessful from Ormuz, Pirbec was beheaded for having acted beyond his instructions, and Morad-beg was sent in 1553 with fifteen galleys to cruise in the Persian Gulf against the Portuguese. An encounter took place between this Turkish squadron and one belonging to the Portuguese under Don Diego de Noronha, which ended without material loss on either side; but the Turks were forced to take shelter in the Euphrates, where the water was too shallow to admit the Portuguese galleons. In the course of this year 1553, Luis Camoens, the admirable Portuguese poet, went out to India, to endeavour to advance his fortune by the sword, which had been so little favoured by his pen.

About this time new troubles took place at Diu in consequence of the death of Sultan Mahmud, king of Guzerat or Cambaya. Like Mithridates, he had accustomed himself to the use of poison, to guard against being poisoned. When any of his women happened to be near their delivery, he used to open them to take out their children. Being one day out hunting accompanied by some of his women, he fell from his horse and was dragged by the stirrup, when one of his women boldly made up to his horse and cut the girth with a scimitar; in requital for this service he killed her, saying "that a woman of such courage had enough to kill him." He was at length murdered by a page in whom he had great confidence. For tyrants always die by the hands of those in whom they repose most trust. He was succeeded by a child who was his reputed son; but the nobility of the kingdom, offended by the insolence of Madrem-al-mulk who acted as governor of the kingdom, rebelled in several places.

Abex Khan, who commanded in the city of Diu, was one of these, and in consequence of some disagreement between his soldiers and the Portuguese garrison, Don Diego de Almeyda made an assault on the city with 500 men, in which many of the Moors were slain and their houses plundered. Though late, Abex Khan saw his error, and made proper concessions. Soon afterwards, when Don Diego de Noronha succeeded Almeyda in the command of the castle of Diu, fresh troubles broke out at Diu, which were not appeased till a good many men had been skin on both sides, chiefly owing to the rashness and obstinacy of Diego de Noronha, for which he was afterwards excluded from the appointment to the viceroyalty of India.

In 1554 Don Alfonso de Noronha was superseded in the government of Portuguese India by Don Pedro de Mascarenhas, who was 70 years of age when appointed viceroy. Soon after his arrival at Goa, some of the great subjects of Adel Khan, king of Visiapour, made proposals for raising Meale Khan, who had long resided at Goa, to the musnud, and offered to cede the Concan to the crown of Portugal, in reward for assistance in bringing about that revolution. That province, which produced a million of yearly revenue, was so great a bait, that the enterprise was engaged in without consideration of its difficulties. Meale Khan was immediately proclaimed king of Visiapour, and a force of 3000 Portuguese infantry with 200 horse and a body of Malabars and Canarins was immediately sent to reduce the fort of Ponda; after which, leaving his family in Goa as hostages for the faithful performance of the treaty, Meale Khan was conducted thither by the viceroy and placed at the head of his new subjects. Leaving Ponda under the charge of Don Antonio de Noronha, with a garrison of 600 men, the viceroy returned to Goa, where he soon afterwards died, having enjoyed the viceroyalty of India only ten months.

On the death of Mascarenhas, which happened some time in 1555, Francisco de Barreto succeeded to the government by virtue of a patent of succession. He immediately proceeded to Ponda to support the cause of Meale Khan, who was soon afterwards taken prisoner, and the Portuguese were utterly disappointed in the hopes of profiting by this intended revolution.

In the beginning of 1556, Juan Peixoto sailed with two gallies for the Red Sea, to examine if the Turks were making any preparations at Suez for attacking the Portuguese in India. Finding every thing quiet, he landed unperceived during the night in the island of Swakem, whence he carried off a considerable booty and many prisoners, and returned to Goa with much honour.

About this time the king of Sinde sent an embassy to the governor general, desiring assistance in a war against one of his neighbours, and 700 men were dispatched for that purpose in 28 vessels under the command of Pedro Barreto, who arrived safe at Tatta in the delta of the Indus, the residence of the king of Sinde. The prince immediately visited the Portuguese commander, and sent notice of his arrival to the king his father who was absent in the field against the enemy. As the king made peace with his enemy, Barreto desired leave to depart, and required that the Portuguese should be reimbursed for the expences of the expedition, as had been agreed upon by the ambassador who solicited it.

Receiving an unsatisfactory answer, Baretto landed his men and entered the city, where he slew above 8000 persons, destroyed to the value of above eight millions in gold,[372] and loaded his vessels with the richest booty that had ever been made in India, without losing a single man. He afterwards spent eight days destroying every thing within reach on both sides of the river. On this occasion one Gaspar de Monterroyo, going accidentally into a wood, killed a monstrous serpent thirty feet in length and of prodigious bigness, which had just devoured a bullock. Thus victorious over men and monsters, Barreto returned to Chaul, whence he and Antonio Pereyra Brandam went and destroyed Dabul in revenge for the injury done by Adel Khan to the Portuguese possessions on the coast.

In the year 1557, Nazer-al-mulk, the general of Adel Khan, invaded the districts of Salsete and Bardes with 2000 horse and 81,000 foot. Francisco Barreto, the governor-general, went against him with 3000 Portuguese infantry, 1000 Canarins, and 200 horse, and defeated him in the plain country near Ponda. In the district of Bardes, Juan Peixoto was opposed to another general of the enemy named Murad Khan, and being much incommoded by a Portuguese renegado who had fortified himself, assaulted and routed him twice with considerable slaughter. As the governor-general had retired to Goa after his late victory, Nazer-al-mulk returned to the flat country and intrenched his army near Ponda. About the same time an officer of Adel Khan waded the ford of Zacorla into the island of Choram with 500 men, and did considerable damage; but on the arrival of assistance from other parts was repulsed with considerable loss, and Francisco de Mascarenhas was left for the defence of the island with 300 men. Being desirous to secure the promontory of Chaul, the governor asked leave to fortify that place from Nizam Shah,[373] who not only refused permission, but sent 30,000 of his own men with orders to build there an impregnable fort. On this the governor went there in person with 4000 Portuguese troops besides natives, and a pacific arrangement was entered into, but without liberty to build the fort.

A miracle was seen at this place, as the Moors had been utterly unable to cut down a small wooden cross fixed upon a stone, or even to remove it by the force of elephants. Likewise about this time a Portuguese soldier bought for a trifle from a Jogue in Ceylon, a brown pebble about the size of an egg, on which the heavens where represented in several colours, and in the midst of them the image of the holy Virgin with the Saviour in her arms; this precious jewel fell into the hands of Franciso Barreto, who presented it to Queen Catharine, and through its virtues God wrought many miracles both in India and Portugal.

About the end of the government of Franciso Barreto, Joam III king of Portugal died, in whom ended the good fortune of the Portuguese. In 1558 the regency, during the minority of King Sebastian, sent out Don Constantin de Braganza as viceroy to India. Don Constantin was younger brother of Theodosius duke of Braganza, and was only 30 years of age when appointed to that high office. He arrived at Goa in the beginning of September 1558, with four ships and 2000 men, having performed the voyage with unusually favourable weather; and, contrary to the usual practice, he assumed the government without affronting in any way the person whom he superseded.

Soon after his arrival he went upon an expedition against Daman, which had been ceded to the former governor by the king of Guzerat, but which was still retained by Side Bofata, who was in rebellion against his own prince. On the arrival of the Portuguese armament, Bofata abandoned the city and fort, which the viceroy took possession of, as a post of importance to secure the district of Basseen, and converted the mosque into a Christian church. Bofata encamped at a place named Parnel, two leagues from Daman, whence with 2000 horse he infested the Portuguese in their new possession; but was driven from his encampment by Antonio Moniz Barreto, leaving thirty-six pieces of cannon, several cart-loads of copper money, and other plunder. The viceroy behaved with such liberality and discretion, that he soon attracted abundance of inhabitants to this new acquisition, and reduced the neighbouring island of Balzar, which he deemed necessary for the security of Daman, of which he gave the command to Don Diego de Noronha with a garrison of 1200, appointing Alvaro Gonzales Pinto to command in Balzar with 120 men and some cannon.

In 1560, the viceroy went against Jafnapatam in the island of Ceylon, because the king of that place, who was likewise lord of the isle of Manar, persecuted the Christians, and had usurped the throne from his brother, who fled to Goa, and was there baptised by the name of Alfonso. After some considerable successes, and having even forced the king of Jafnapatam to cede the island of Manar, and to submit to the vassalage of Portugal, the viceroy was obliged to desist from the enterprise with considerable loss, but retained the island of Manar, where he built a fort. Among the treasure belonging to the king of Jafnapatam, taken in this expedition, was an idol, or relic rather, which was held in high estimation by all the idolaters on the coast of India, and, in particular, by the king of Pegu, who used to send ambassadors yearly with rich presents, merely to get a print of the precious relic.

This holy relic was nothing more than the tooth of a white monkey; and some say that the cause of its being so much admired was owing to the rarity of the colour, like the white elephant of Siam. Others say that the monkey was held in such veneration for having discovered the wife of an ancient Indian king who had eloped from her husband. Some again alleged that it was the tooth of a man who had performed that service. However this may have been, when the king of Pegu heard that this tooth was in possession of the viceroy, he made an offer of 300,000 ducats for it, and it was believed his zeal would extend to a million if the bargain was well managed. Most of the Portuguese were for taking the money, and some wished to be employed in carrying the tooth to Pegu, expecting to derive great profit by shewing so precious a treasure by the way. But in a meeting of the principal clergy and laity of Goa, held on purpose, it was determined that the tooth should be destroyed; and it was accordingly pounded in a mortar in presence of the assembly, and reduced to ashes. All men applauded this act; but, not long afterwards, two teeth were set up instead of one.

Madrem al Mulk, king of Cambaya, desirous of recovering Daman, was ready to march against that place with a numerous army; but Don Diego de Noronha, getting intelligence of the design, contrived to persuade Cedeme Khan, lord of Surat, that the expedition was intended against him. Cedeme Khan, giving credit to this fiction, went to visit his brother-in-law, Madrem al Mulk, and persuaded him, with the principal leaders of his army, to visit him in the city of Surat, where he killed them all, and falling upon the camp put the Guzerat army to the rout with great slaughter. Zingis Khan, the son and successor of Madrem al Mulk, marched with a numerous army to Surat to revenge the death of his father. Cedeme Khan abandoned the city and retired into the fort, where he was besieged by Zingis Khan, and reduced to great extremity; but hearing that his dominions were invaded by a new enemy, Zingis Khan patched up an agreement with Cedeme Khan, and returned to defend his own country. Soon afterwards, Don Diego de Noronha, commandant of Daman, died poor, having expended all his substance in the service of his king and country. Don Antonio de Noronha, who was afterwards viceroy, used to say "That a man must be mad who practised that kind of liberality." Nowadays all men are very wise in that respect.

Some time afterwards, Cedeme Khan sent notice to the viceroy that Zingis Khan was again marching against Surat, which he was in no condition to defend, and offered to deliver up the fort at that place to the Portuguese, on condition of being carried with his family and treasure to such place as he should appoint. The viceroy accordingly sent fourteen ships under the command of Don Antonio de Noronha to Surat, accompanied by Luis de Melo, who was appointed to succeed Diego de Noronha in the command of Daman. Coming to Surat, they forced their way up the river through showers of bullets, and landing with only 500 Portuguese troops, defeated Zingis Khan, who had an army of 20,000 men, but were unable to drive him from the city of Surat. Cedeme Khan however refused to deliver up the fort of Surat according to agreement, alledging that his own men would kill him if he did so. This is very likely; for, on the retirement of Antonio to Goa, Cedeme Khan was forced to make his escape from his own people, and, being made prisoner by Zingis Khan, was put to death. Caracen, who succeeded Cedeme Khan, contrived to patch up an agreement with Zingis Zhan, who left him in possession of Surat.

The conduct of Don Constantin de Braganza gave so much satisfaction to King Sebastian that he offered to continue him as viceroy of India for life; but on his refusal, Don Francisco de Cotinho, count of Redondo, was appointed his successor. This nobleman, who was no less distinguished for his witty sayings than for his conduct in peace and war, arrived at Goa in the beginning of September 1561. Nothing worth relating happened during his government of India, which lasted two years and five months, except the ordinary occurrences of petty wars on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, Malacca, and the Moluccas, not worth relating.

In his time, the famous poet Camoens was in Goa, where he had been favoured by the two last viceroys. The former governor, Francisco Barreto, had imprisoned and banished him for getting into debt, and other youthful extravagancies; and, being given up to the law by the count towards the end of his government, he was thrown into prison. We shall afterwards see him deceitfully carried to Sofala, and there sold as a slave. About the end of February 1564, the viceroy died suddenly, much lamented by all, being a great lover of justice, and so happy in his witticisms that all pleasant sayings were fathered upon him.

[Footnote 369: The transactions of this period are of so little importance, and related in so desultory a manner, that in the present section we have only thought it necessary to give an abbreviated selection.--E.]
[Footnote 370: We only learn incidentally from De Faria that this happened in the year 1550.--E.]
[Footnote 371: This silly story has been retained, perhaps very unnecessarily. It is perhaps an instance of embellishment founded on the love of the marvellous, and the whole truth may lie in a very narrow compass "an infant coming into the world covered with hair," while all the rest is fiction.--E.]
[Footnote 372: On many occasions, as here, De Faria, or his translator, gives no intimation of the species of coin to which he alludes.--E.]
[Footnote 373: Named Nizamuxa in De Faria, and perhaps the same prince called Nizamaluco on former occasions, whom we have always designated Nizam al Mulk. The Indian officers named in the text a little before Nazer al Mulk and Murad Khan, are called Nazar Maluco and Moatecan by De Faria, whose orthography of eastern names is continually vicious.--E.]


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