Volume 9, Chapter 11, Section 4 -- Voyage of Captain Walter Peyton to India, in 1615.
This voyage seems to have been under the command of Captain Newport, who sailed as general in the Lion; but is called, in the Pilgrims, The Second Voyage of Captain Peyton to the East Indies, because the former voyage of Newport was written by Peyton, who, though he occasionally mentions the general, never once names him. In this voyage Peyton sailed in the Expedition; the fleet consisting of three other ships, the Dragon, Lion, and Pepper-corn. The journal appears to have been abbreviated by Purchas, as he tells us it was gathered out of his larger journal. This voyage is chiefly remarkable as introductory to the embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to India, contained in the subsequent section, as Sir Thomas and his suite embarked in this fleet. Instead of giving the remarks of Sir Thomas Roe in his own journal, so far as they apply to the voyage between England and Surat, these have been added in the text of the present voyage, distinguishing those observations by T.R., the initials of his name, and placing them all in separate paragraphs.
We learn by a subsequent article in the Pilgrims, I. 603, that Captain William Keeling was general, or chief commander, of this fleet, and sailed in the Dragon, Robert Bonner master. The other two ships were the Pepper-corn, Captain Christopher Harris, and the Expedition, Captain William Peyton.--E.
§1. Occurrences during the Voyage from England to Surat.
We sailed from Gravesend on the 24th January, 1615, and on the 2nd February Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador from his majesty to the Great Mogul, repaired on board the Lion, with fifteen attendants. At the same time, Mr. Humphry Boughton embarked in the Pepper-corn, being recommended by the king to the company for a passage to India. We carried out in the fleet eleven Japanese, who were brought to England in the Clove, divided proportionally among the ships; likewise fourteen Guzerates, brought home in the Dragon, together with nineteen condemned persons from Newgate, to be left for the discovery of unknown places, the company having obtained their pardons from the king for this purpose. On the 20th, some of the Dragon's men, among whom were the Newgate birds, attempted to run away with the pinnace, but were prevented: Yet next night one of these condemned men, and two of the crew of the Pepper-corn, carried away her pinnace. Two of my men conspired to carry away my boat that same night, but were discovered.
The 23rd February we set sail from the Downs, and on the 6th March we lost sight of the Lizard. The 26th we saw land, supposed to be the western part of Fuerteventura, but it proved to be part of Barbary. One of the points of land at the mouth of the river Marhequena, we found to be laid down wrong, a whole degree more northerly than it ought to be; as likewise cape Bajadore is misplaced a whole degree, which we found by experience, escaping great danger caused by that error in our charts. The 26th of April we got into the trade wind; and on the 10th May, being by estimation 620 leagues west of the Cape of Good Hope, we saw many pintadoes, mangareludas, and other fowls.
The 5th June we came to anchor in Saldanha bay, having only buried three or four men since leaving England, out of our whole fleet, and had now about thirty sick, for whom we erected five tents ashore. Corey came down and welcomed us after his manner, by whose means the savages were not so fearful or thievish as at other times. They brought us cattle in great abundance, which we bought for shreds of copper. Corey shewed his house and his wife and children to some of our people, his dwelling being at a town or craal of about an hundred houses, five English miles from the landing place. Most of these savages can say Sir Thomas Smith's English ships, which they often repeat with much pride. Their wives and children came often down to see us, whom we gratified with bugles, or such trifles; and two or three of them expressed a desire to go with us to England, seeing that Corey had sped so well, and returned so rich, with his copper suit, which he preserves at his house with much care. Corey also proposed to return with us, accompanied by one of his sons, when our ships are homeward-bound. On the east side of the Table mountain there is another village of ten small houses, built round like bee-hives, and covered with mats woven of bent grass.
"The land at the Cape of Good Hope, near Saldanha bay [Table bay], is fertile, but divided by high and inaccessible rocky mountains, covered with snow, the river Dulce falling into the bay on the east side. The natives are the most barbarous people in the world, eating carrion, wearing the guts of sheep about their necks, and rubbing their heads, the hair on which is curled like the negroes, with the dung of beasts and other dirt. They have no clothing, except skins wrapped about their shoulders, wearing the fleshy side next them in summer, and the hairy side in winter. Their houses are only made of mats, rounded at the top like an oven, and open on one side, which they turn as the wind changes, having no door to keep out the weather. They have left off their former custom of stealing, but are quite ignorant of God, and seem to have no religion. The air and water here are both excellent, and the country is very healthy. The country abounds in cattle, sheep, antilopes, baboons, pheasants, partridges, larks, wild-geese, ducks, and many other kinds of fowls. On the Penguin isle [Dassen or Robber's island], there is a bird called penguin, which walks upright, having no feathers on its wings, which hang down like sleeves faced with white. These birds cannot fly, but walk about in flocks, being a kind of mixture, or intermediate link, between beast, bird, and fish, yet mostly bird. The commodities here are cattle and ningin roots; and I believe there is a rock yielding quicksilver. The Table mountain is 11,853 feet high. The bay is full of whales and seals, and is in lat. 33° 45' S."--T.R.On the 16th of June, after a consultation, we set ashore ten of our condemned persons to remain at the Cape. These were John Crosse, Henry Cocket, Clerke, Brand, Booth, Hunyard, Brigs, Pets, Metcalf, and Skilligall. These men agreed that Crosse should be their chief, and we gave them weapons for their defence against men and wild beasts, together with provisions and clothes. The natives at this place are especially desirous of brass, and care not much for copper, chiefly wishing to have pieces of a foot square. They care little for iron hoops. We caught seven or eight hundred fishes in the river, at one haul of our seyne. The country people brought us for sale a root called Ningin, of which we bought a handful for a small piece of copper an inch and half long. Our men got some of this, but not so good, this not being the season when it is ripe; for, when in full perfection, it is as tender and sweet as anise-seeds.
We sailed from Saldanha on the 20th June, and on the the 21st we had sight of land in 34° 28' S., being the land to the west of cape de Arecife, laid down 28' more northwardly than it ought in the charts of Daniel. On the 6th July we ought to have seen the coast of Madagascar, by most of our computations, and according to Daniel's charts, upon Mercator's projection, which proved false by seventy leagues in distance of longitude between the coast of Ethiopia at cape Bona Speranza and the isle of St. Lawrence, as is evident from the charts projected in plano by Tottens. The 22nd all the four ships anchored at Mohelia, where we had water from wells dug a little above high-water mark, eight or nine feet deep, close by the roots of trees. Doman is the chief town of this island, where the sultan resides, to whom we gave a double-locked piece and a sword. For very little money we were plentifully supplied with provisions, as poultry, goats, bullocks, lemons, oranges, limes, tamarinds, cocoa-nuts, pines, sugar-canes, and other fruits. Among the inhabitants of this island there are Arabs, Turks, and Moors, many of whom speak tolerable Portuguese. From them I had a curious account of the current at this place, which they said ran alternately fifteen days westerly, fifteen days easterly, and fifteen days not at all; and which I partly observed to be true: For, at our first coming, the current set westerly, and on the 28th it set easterly, and so continued during our stay, which was six days, but we went away before trial could be perfectly made of this report.
I learned here that the king of Juanni [Joanna or Hinzuan] was sovereign of this island, but entrusted its government to the sultan, who resides here. The 29th, a vessel arrived at Doman from Gangamora, in the island of Madagascar, and I was desired by the general to examine what were its commodities, which I found to consist of rice, and a kind of cloth manufactured of the barks of trees, which makes very cool garments. I enquired from the pilot, who spoke good Portuguese, respecting Captain Rowles and the other Englishmen who were betrayed on that island. He knew nothing of all this, but said that two or three years before, an English boy was at Gangamora along with the Portuguese, whom he now thought dead, but knew not how he came there. This town of Doman contains about an hundred houses, strongly built of stone and lime, and its inhabitants are orderly and civil. They carry on trade with the coasts of Melinda, Magadoxa, Mombaza, Arabia, and Madagascar, carrying slaves taken in their wars, which they sell for nine or ten dollars each, and which are sold afterwards in Portugal for 100 dollars a-head. At Mombaza and Magadoxa, they have considerable trade in elephants' teeth and drugs; and it was therefore agreed to advise the honourable company of this, that they might consider of sending a pinnace yearly to make trial of this trade. In Mohelia, we bought two or three bullocks for a bar of iron of between twenty and twenty-five pounds weight. We bought in all 200 head of cattle, and forty goats, besides poultry, fruits, &c.
"Malalia [Mohelia] is one of the Commora islands, the other three being Angazesia [Comoro], Juanny [Joanna or Hinzuan], and Mayotta, stretching almost east and west from each other. Angazesia [Comoro] bears N. by W. from Mohelia, and is the highest land I ever saw. It is inhabited by Moors trading with the main and the other three eastern islands, bartering their cattle and fruits for calicoes and other cloths for garments. It is governed by ten petty kings, and has abundance of cattle, goats, oranges, and lemons. The people are reckoned false and treacherous. Hinzuan lies east from Mohelia and Mayotta. All these three islands are well stored with refreshments, but chiefly Mohelia, and next to it Hinzuan. Here lived an old woman who was sultaness of all these islands, and under her there were three deputies in Mohelia, who were all her sons. The sultan in whose quarter we anchored is so absolute, that none of his people dared to sell a single cocoa-nut without his leave. Four boats were sent to his town to desire this liberty, which was granted.We sailed from Mohelia on the 2nd August, and on the 17th got sight of cape Guardafui, where the natives seemed afraid of us. The 20th we anchored in the road of Galencia in Socotora, where the fierceness of the wind raised the sea into a continual surf all round about us, and by the spray, blown about us like continual rain, our masts, yards, and tackle were made white all over by the salt, like so much hoar-frost; The 23rd we anchored at Tamara, the town where the king resides, and on the 24th at Delisha. They here demanded thirty dollars for the quintal of aloes, which made us buy the less. The Faiking told us that Captain Downton had bought 100 quintals, and it was still so liquid, either from newness, or because of the heat, that it was ready to run out of the skins. The quintal of this place, as tried by our beam, weighed 103 1/2 pounds English. Aloes is made from the leaves of a plant resembling our sempervivum, or house-leek, the roots and stalk being cut away, the rest strongly pressed, and the juice boiled up to a certain height, after which it is put into earthen pots, closely stopped for eight months, and is then put into skins for sale.
"Captain Newport went ashore with forty men, and found the governor sitting on a mat, under the side of a junk which was then building, and attended by fifty men. He was dressed in a mantle of blue and red calico, wrapped about him to his knees, his legs and feet bare, and his head covered by a close cap of checquer work. Being presented with a gun and sword, he returned four cows, and proclaimed liberty for the people to trade with us. He gave the English cocoa-nuts to eat, while he chewed betel and areka-nut, tempered with lime of burnt oister shells. It has a hot biting taste, voids rheum, cools the head, and is all their physic. It makes those giddy who are not accustomed to its use, producing red spittles, and in time colours the teeth black, which they esteem handsome, and they use this continually. From the governor they were conducted to the carpenter's house, who was a chief man in the town. His house was built of stone and lime, low and little, plaistered with white lime, roofed with rafters, which were covered with leaves of the cocoa-nut tree, the outsides wattled with canes.
"Their houses are kept clean and neat, with good household stuff, having gardens inclosed with canes, in which they grow tobacco and plantains. For dinner, a board was set upon tressels, on which was spread a fine new mat, and stone benches stood around, on which the guests sat. First, water was brought to each in a cocoa-shell, and poured into a wooden platter, and the rinds of cocoa-nuts were used instead of towels. There was then set before the company boiled rice, roasted plantains, quarters of hens, and pieces of goat's flesh broiled. After grace said, they fell to their meat, using bread made of cocoa-nut kernels, beaten up with honey, and fried. The drink was palamito wine, and the milk of the cocoa-nuts. Those who went to see the sultan, named Amir Adell, found all things much in the same manner, only that his behaviour was more light, and he made haste to get drunk with some wine carried to him by the English. The people of these islands are strict Mahomedans, and very jealous of letting their women or mosques be seen. For,gon some of the English coming near a village, they shut them up, and threatened to kill them if they came nearer. Many of them speak and write Arabic, and some few of them Portuguese, as they trade with Mosambique in junks of forty tons burden, built, caulked, and rigged all out of the cocoa-nut tree. Here we bought oxen and cows, fat but small, Arabian sheep, hens, oranges, lemons, and limes in abundance, paying for them in calicoes, hollands, sword-blades, dollars, glasses, and other trifles."--T.R.
The north part of Socotora is in 12° 30', and the body in 120° 25'. It is fourteen leagues from this island to Abdul Curia, and as much more from thence to cape Guardafui. Such as mean to sail for Socotora should touch at that cape, and sail from thence next morning a little before day-break, to lose no part of the day-light, the nights here being dark and obscure, with fogs and boisterous winds, during the months of August and September. On getting into Abdul Curi_, they may anchor on the west side in seven or eight fathoms, under the low land; or, if they cannot get to anchor, should keep close hauled in the night to the southward, lest the wind and northerly current put them too much to leeward before day. Notwithstanding the monsoon, the winds do not blow steadily, being sometimes S. by W. and S.S.W. but seldom to the east of south.
"Socotora is an island not far from the mouth of the Red Sea, being the Dioscuria or Disoscordia of the ancients, in lat. 13° 20' N. It was governed when we were there by a sultan named Amir Ben-said, son of the king of Fartaque, in Arabia Felix, which lies between the latitudes of 15° and 18° N. on the coast of Arabia. This king was in peace with the Turks, on condition of assisting them with 5000 men when required, and then these troops to be paid and maintained by the Turks, to whom he paid no other acknowledgement. Near to the sea about Dofar, there is another petty Arab sovereign, whom he of Fartaque dare not meddle with, because he is under the protection of the Grand Signior.The 31st of August we sailed from Socotora. The 10th September we had quails, herons, and other land-birds blown from the land, and unable to return. The 14th we had sight of Diu, and the 16th of Damaun, both inhabited by the Portuguese, and strongly fortified. On the 18th we passed the bar of Surat, and came to anchor in the road of Swally. Next day we sent a messenger on shore, and our boat returned the same night, bringing off Mr. William Bidulph, who told us of all the affairs of the country, and that Zulphecar Khan was now governor of Surat. At this place we bought sheep for half a dollar each, and got twenty hens for a dollar. On the 22nd Mr. Barker and other merchants were sent to Surat to provide furniture for a house to accommodate the lord ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe. They were searched most narrowly, even their pockets, and the most secret parts of their dress, according to the base manner of this country, in which a man has to pay custom for a single dollar in his purse, or a good knife in his pocket; and if one has any thing rare, it is sure to be taken away by the governor, under pretence of purchase.
"The sultan of Socotora came down to meet us at the shore, accompanied by 300 men, and had a tent set up for his accommodation. He was on horseback, as were two of his principal attendants, and a third on a camel, the people running before and behind him shouting. He had two companies of guards, one composed of his own subjects, and the other consisting of twelve hired Guzerates, some armed with Turkish bows, some with pistols, and some with muskets, but all having good swords. He had also a few kettle-drums, and one trumpet. He received the general in a courteous manner, and was so absolute, that no person could sell any thing except himself. His people sat about him very respectfully; his clothes were of Surat cloths, made in the Arabian fashion, with a cassock of red and white wrought velvet, and a robe of which the ground was cloth of gold. He wore a handsome turban, but his legs and feet were bare.
"Every night these people all stand or kneel towards the setting sun, the zerife throwing water on their heads, being all Mahomedans. The king's town, named Tamara, is built of stone and lime, all whited over, the houses built with battlements and pinnacles, and all flat-roofed. At a distance it looks well, but within is very poor. Mr. Boughton had leave to see the king's house, and found it such as might serve an ordinary gentleman in England. The lower rooms were used as warehouses and wardrobe, a few changes of robes hanging about the walls, and along with them were some twenty-five books of their law, religion, history, and saints' lives. No person could be permitted to go up stairs to see his three wives, or the other women; but the ordinary sort might be seen in the town, their ears all full of silver rings. In the mosque the priest was seen at service. Mr. Boughton had for his dinner three hens, with rice, his drink being water, and a black liquor called cahu [coffee] drank as hot as could be endured.
"On a hill, a mile from Tamara, there is a square castle, but we could not get leave to see it. The inhabitants are of four sorts. The first are Arabs, who have come in by means of conquest, who dare not speak in presence of the sultan without leave, and kissing his hand. The second sort are slaves, who kiss his foot when they come into his presence, do all his work, and make his aloes. The third sort are the old inhabitants of the country, called Bedouins, though I think these are not the oldest of all, whom I suppose to have been those commonly called Jacobite Christians. For, on Mr Boughton going into a church of theirs, which the Arabs had forced them to abandon, he found some images and a crucifix, which he took away. The Mahomedans would not say much about these people, lest other Christians might relieve or support them. These Bedouins, having had wars with the Arabs, live apart from them in the mountains. The fourth kind of people, or original natives, are very savage, poor, lean, naked, and wear their hair long. They eat nothing but roots, ride about on buffaloes, conversing only among themselves, being afraid of all others, having no houses, and live more like wild beasts than men, and these we conjecture to have been the original natives of the place.
"The island is very mountainous and barren, having some beeves, goats, and sheep, a few dates and oranges, a little rice, and nothing else for the food of man. All its commodities consist of aloes, the inspisated juice of a plant having a leaf like our house-leek. The only manufacture is a very poor kind of cloth, used only by slaves. The king had some dragon's blood, and some Lahore indigo, as also a few civet cats and civet. The dead are all buried in tombs, and the monuments of their saints are held in much veneration. The chief of these was one Sidy Hachun, buried at Tamara, who was slain about an hundred years before we were there, and who, as they pretend, still appears to them, and warns them of approaching dangers. They hold him in wonderful veneration, and impute high winds to his influence."--T.R.
The lord ambassador landed on the 25th, accompanied by our general, all the captains and merchants, and eighty men under arms, part pikes, and part muskets. Forty-eight guns were fired off from the ships, which were all dressed out with colours and streamers, flags and pendants. On landing, he was received in a splendid tent by the chief men of Surat, who welcomed him to India. There was much to-do about their barbarous search, which they would have executed on all his attendants, which he strenuously resisted, and at length he and three or four of his principal followers were exempted, while the rest were only slightly handled for fashion-sake. A great deal passed on this occasion between the governor and the ambassador, about these rude and barbarous exactions, Sir Thomas justly contending for the honour and immunity of an ambassador from an independent king; while they insisted to make no difference between him and others of similar rank in those parts, and of our own likewise, who had formerly assumed the name of ambassadors. Their barbarous usage not only perplexed him there, and detained him long till an order came from court, but gave him much plague all the time he remained in the country, as will appear afterwards from his own journal. They could not easily be persuaded to allow of any difference between him and Mr. Edwards, who had been considered by them in the same light with Sir Thomas.
Mr. Barwick's man, who had been inveigled to run away by a deserter from Captain Best who had turned Mahomedan, was brought back from Surat on the 1st of October. Others afterwards ran away to Damaun, and wrote to their comrades to induce them to do the same. The 2nd, two Hollanders came on board, who had travelled by land from Petapulli, on the Coromandel coast. On the 10th, the governor's brother came on board, making many fair speeches, and had a present given him. The governor impudently urged us to give him presents, though he had already received three, but found fault with them, and even named what he would have given him, being beggar and chooser both at once. We had this day news of Mr. Aldworth's death; and on the 5th November we received intelligence of the lord ambassador having fallen sick at Burhanpoor, and that Mr. Boughton was dead.
The most current coin at Surat is rials of eight, or Spanish dollars, of which the old with the plain cross passes for five mahmoodies each. The new dollars, having flower-de-luces at the ends of the cross, if not light, are worth 4 3/4 mahmoodies. The mahmoody is a coarse silver coin, containing thirty pice, and twelve drams make a pice. The English shilling, if full weight, will yield 30 1/2 pice. Larines are worth much the same with mahmoodies. There are sundry kinds of rupees, some of which are worth half a dollar, and others less, by which one may be easily deceived. The trade at Surat is conducted by brokers, who are very subtle, and deceive both buyer and seller, if not carefully looked after. In weights, each city of India differs from another. The commodities are infinite, indigos being the chief, those of Lahore the best, and those from Sarkess inferior. Great quantities of cloths made of cotton, as white and coloured calicoes, containing fourteen yards the book or piece, from 100 to 200 mahmoodies each. Pintadoes, chintzes, chadors, sashes, girdles, cannakens, trekannies, serrabafs, aleias, patollas, sellas, quilts, carpets, green ginger, suckets or confections, lignum aloes, opium, sal amoniac, and abundance of other drugs. Vendible commodities are knives, mirrors, pictures, and such like toys; English cloth, China wares, silk, and porcelain, and all kinds of spices. The Guzerates load their great ships, of nine, twelve, or fifteen hundred tons, at Gogo, and steal out unknown to the Portuguese.
The chief places for trade on the river Sinde, or Indus, are Tatta, Diul-sinde, Mooltan, and Lahore. The Expedition, on her former voyage, had landed the Persian ambassador, Sir Robert Shirley, at Diul-sinde; and of him I have thought it right to give the following particulars, as an appendix to my former voyage, having learnt them from some of his followers at Agra. Being weary of Diul-sinde, through the evil conduct of the governor, and the attempts of the Portuguese to molest him, who even used their endeavours to cut him off, for which purpose twelve of them had gone there from Ormus, he asked leave to proceed to Tatta; but being refused permission, he went without leave, and having by the way to pass a river where none durst ferry him over, because prohibited by the governor on pain of death, he constructed a raft of timber and boards, on which he and Nazerbeg embarked. They were no sooner shoved off than twenty or thirty horse came from the governor in great haste to detain them. And as Nazerbeg was unable to guide the raft against the tide, some men swam to the raft and brought them back, on which occasion they narrowly escaped being drowned. Some of his followers being indignant at this rude dealing, one Mr. John Ward shot off his pistol in their faces, and was instantly slain by another shot, and all the rest were carried back prisoners to Diul-sinde, being pillaged by the soldiers on their way. After some time in prison, they were permitted to proceed to Tatta, where they were kindly entertained by the governor of that place, who was a Persian. Before leaving Diul-sinde, Sir Thomas Powell and Mr. Francis Bub died. Sir Robert Shirley remained at Tatta till a fit opportunity offered of proceeding to Agra, where he went at last, finding the way long and tedious, and much infested by thieves. He went there however in safety, going in company with a great man who had a strong escort, and for whom he had to wait two months.
In this time Lady Powell was delivered of a son, but both she and her child died soon after, together with Mr. Michael Powell, brother to Sir Thomas, losing their lives in this tedious waiting in boats for the great man. On his arrival at Agra, Sir Robert was favourably entertained by the Great Mogul, who sent for the Banian governor of Diul-sinde to answer at court to the complaint, and promised Sir Robert to have his own revenge if he would stay; but he hasted away to Persia, after receiving many presents from the Mogul, who gave him an escort, and all necessaries for his journey, in which he had not a single English attendant, as John Heriot died at Agra, and Mr. Richard Barber, his apothecary, returned to Surat. Of all his company, three only remained with him, his lady and her female attendant, two Persians, the old Arminian, and the Circassian. His Dutch jeweller came to Surat along with Mr. Edwards.
§2. Occurrences at Calicut and Sumatra, Miscarriage of the English Ships, Abuses of the Dutch, and Factories in India.
We took a Portuguese prize on the 29th of February, 1616. The 3rd March, while at anchor in the road of Calicut, the deputy of the Zamorin came aboard, attended by many boats, signifying the joy of his master at our arrival, and his earnest desire to confer with our nation, and entreated therefore that we would tarry a few days, that he might send to the Zamorin, who was then at Cranganore besieging a castle belonging to the Portuguese. We had here abundance of provisions brought to us on board, and at reasonable rates. That same evening there came a messenger from the Zamorin, entreating us to anchor for two or three days off Cranganore, which we accordingly did on the 5th, anchoring two leagues off shore. About noon the Zamorin sent to request the general would come ashore, to visit him, but this was not deemed right without a pledge, and Mr. George Barkley went ashore to wait upon him; but the Zamorin refused to reveal his intentions to any one except our general, and seemed much displeased at his not coming ashore.
The general accordingly landed on the 8th, and had an audience of the Zamorin, who wished the English to establish a factory in his dominions, for which purpose he offered a good house rent-free, freedom from custom or other exactions, for all goods brought there or carried thence, and made many protestations of affection for our nation. This was for the present declined, because most of our goods had been left at Surat, and because we were now bound for Bantam. To this the Zamorin answered, that it was no matter whether any goods were left for the present, as he only desired we might leave two or three Englishmen there, who should want for nothing, as he only wanted to be assured of our return next year with a supply of men and goods. He assured us we might be sure of loading one ship yearly with pepper, and might make sale of our commodities to a considerable extent. Upon this it was agreed to leave a factory at this place, with such goods as we could spare, which went accordingly on shore on the 9th; George Woolman being appointed chief of this new factory at Cranganore, Peter Needham and Roger Hares under-factors, together with Richard Stamford, and a boy named Edward Peake, who was appointed to learn the language. The name of the king is Pendre Quone Zamorin, to whom was given, as a present, a minion or small cannon, and a barrel of powder; on which he promised, if he won the fort of Cranganore, to give it up to the English.
The 10th we received the Zamorin's letter of agreement for our privileges, with many fair protestations of love. We sailed the same day, passing before Cochin, which we could see distinctly. Next day we had a view of the town and castle of Coulan, where was a ship riding at anchor under the guns of the castle, which we boarded and brought forth without any hurt from the guns, all the crew having fled ashore. This was a Portuguese ship of four or five hundred tons, lately arrived from Bengal and Pegu, laden with rice, grain, Bengal cloths, butter, sugar, gum lack, hard wax, drugs, and other things.
The 12th we espied another ship, to which we gave chase, and came up with about midnight, when she surrendered at the first shot. I sent for her chief men on board my ship, the others being three or four miles a-stern, and set some of my people on board the prize, with strict charges to hurt no person. There were in this ship eighteen or twenty Portuguese, and about eighty others, men, women, and children. Her chief loading was rice, butter, sugar, lack, drugs, and Bengal cloths. We offered these people our first prize, with victuals to carry them ashore, which they refused, as fearing to be ill-used by the Malabars, having lately escaped with difficulty from a fleet of theirs of fourteen sail. Next day we landed them where they desired, and allowed them to go away unsearched for money or jewels. We had now three English ships and three prizes.
The 14th we arrived at Brinion, in lat. 8° 30', where we took out of the first prize what we thought useful, and then set her adrift. At Brinio_ there is a small town in a round bay, which may be known by a long white beach to the north, and to the south is all high land, having a red cliff two leagues to the south, close to the sea. From thence to cape Comorin is sixteen leagues, the course being S.E. by S. along a bold free coast. The inhabitants of Brinion are no way subject to the Portuguese. The 1st of April the island of Ceylon bore E. by S. seven leagues off. On the 10th the Peak of Adam bore north. I this day took my leave of the general, the Dragon and Pepper-corn being bound for Acheen, while I, in the Expedition, went for Priaman, Tecoo, and Bantam.
It is good to remain in Brinion till the end of March, when the easterly monsoon ends, and not to pass cape Comorin sooner, on account of calms, and because the southerly current sets towards the Maldives. All who come from the west for Priaman and Tecoo, ought to continue so as to have sufficient day-light for passing between Nimptan and the other adjacent islands, the best channel being to the north of that island. On the 30th of April I met the Advice going for Tecoo; but, at my request, she returned for Bantam, whence she was sent to Japan. I arrived at Bantam on the 1st of May, where I found the Hosiander newly arrived from Japan, and the Attendance from Jambo, most of their men being sick or dead. I here learnt the death of Captain Downton, and of the arrival of Captain Samuel Castleton with the Clove and Defence, which, with the Thomas and Concord, were gone to the Moluccas, the Thomas being appointed to proceed from thence to Japan.
The 19th of May I sailed from Bantam, and the 10th June I put into Tecoo. The 3rd July I hove my ship down on the careen to sheath her. It is of great use to double sheath such ships as go to Surat, as though the outer sheathing may be eaten like a honey-comb by the worms, the inner is not at all injured. It were also of great use to have the rudder sheathed with thin copper, to prevent the worms from eating off its edges, which is very detrimental in steering, and cannot be easily remedied, being so deep in the water. The natives of Sumatra inhabiting Priaman are barbarous, deceitful, and continually craving presents or bribes; and sometimes I have been in imminent hazard of being murdered, a hundred of them drawing their crisses upon us at once, because we refused to let them have our goods on trust, or at prices of their own making. The 20th, Thomas Bonnar, master of the Expedition, died, and was succeeded by John Row, who was the third master in this voyage.
The 26th, the Dragon and Pepper-corn arrived from Acheen, where they had purchased pepper, carried there from Tecoo in large junks and praws, which navigate between these places, but never out of sight of land. The king of Acheen commands the people of Tecoo to bring their pepper to his port, and allows none to purchase it there, but those who barter their Surat goods at such rates as he pleases to impose. Often likewise, he sends to Priaman and Tecoo the Surat commodities procured by him in that manner, obliging the merchants there to buy at rates by him imposed, and no person is allowed to buy or sell till his goods are sold. This makes our trade with them the better.
Jambo is on the east side of Sumatra, and yields a similar large-grained pepper with what is procured at Priaman, but is not under the dominion of the king of Acheen, as are Baruse, Passaman, Tecoo, Priaman, Cottatinga, and other places on the western side of that island. Baruse is to the north of Passaman, and yields considerable quantities of benzoin; Cottatinga yields gold, and the other places pepper. Our general brought the king of Acheen's letter to these places, where the chief men received it with great submission, each of them kissing it and laying it on his head, promising to obey its injunctions, yet all failed in performance. It were proper, in these letters from the king, to procure all the particulars of the trade to be inserted. I set sail from Tecoo for Bantam on the 4th September.
The best gold, and the largest quantity, is to be had at the high hill of Passaman, where likewise is the best, cheapest, and most abundant produce of pepper. But the air is there so pestiferous, that there is no going thither for our nation without great mortality among the men. Fortunately this is not necessary in procuring pepper, as the Surat commodities at Tecoo are sufficiently attractive. I have even observed many of the natives to labour under infectious diseases, the limbs of some being ready to drop off with rottenness, while others had huge wens or swellings under their throats, as large as a two-penny loaf; which they impute to the bad water. Though a barbarous people, they are yet acquainted with the means of curing their diseases. The people of Tecoo are base, thievish, subtle, seeking gain by every kind of fraud, or even by force when they dare; using false weights, false reckonings, and even attempting to poison our meats and drinks while dressing, and crissing our men when opportunity serves: But it is to be hoped they may be inforced to keep better order, by the influence and authority of the king of Acheen. At Acheen our Portuguese prizes were disposed of, and shared according to the custom of the sea, a sixth part being divided among the captors, and the rest carried to the account of our employers. There were only five left in the factory. Many of our men were sick, owing to their immoderate indulgence in drinking arrack.
When at Bantam, in October 1616, there were four English ships, and five Hollanders at Jacatra, which raised the price of pepper; and that the more, because the Dutch boasted of having brought this year in ready money 1,600,000 dollars, which is probably a great exaggeration to brave our nation. Their last fleet of six ships took two or three ships of the Portuguese, of which they made great boasts. They endeavour to depress our nation by every manner of abuse throughout the Indies, acting towards us in a most unfriendly and unchristian manner. Even in Bantam, where they acknowledge our equal right, they threaten to pull our people out of our factory by the ears, sometimes picking quarrels with them in the streets, and even imprisoning them; and when they themselves have caused an uproar, complaining to the king of Bantam of our unquietness, and bribing him to take their parts. He receives their money, and tells us of their dealings, taking advantage of this disagreement to fleece both sides.
Even at Pulo-way, an island freely surrendered to the king of England, they abused our people, leading them through the streets with halters round their necks, carrying an hour-glass before them, and proclaiming that they were to be hanged when the sand was run out. And though they did not actually proceed to that extremity, they kept them three or four days in irons, and afterwards sent them aboard the Concord and Thomasine, under a forced composition never to return. Likewise, at the return of the Hosiander from Japan, which brought thirty tons of wood for them, free of freight and charges, they reported she would have returned empty, but for their timber; which also they might have said of my ship, which brought for them, from Surat to Bantam, thirty-one churles of indigo and a chest of pistoles, freight-free.
Captain Castleton went to the Moluccas with four ships, the Clove, Defence, Thomas, and Concord, that he might be better able to defend himself against the Hollanders; yet, being threatened by eleven of their ships, they returned without doing much business, having only a few cloves in the Clove. The captain died there of the flux; and the bad success of that expedition, together with other faults, was laid to his charge. The Trades-increase was twice set on fire by the Javans, and the fire quenched by our people; but on a third attempt, she was fired in so many places at once, that it was impossible to save her. The Darling was laid up at Patane, in June 1615, by order of Mr. Larkine and the factory, as incapable of repair. Herrold, her master, was reported of having a design to carry her off to the Portuguese; and, being prevented, he went himself.
The Thomasine was cast away, in September 1615, upon a shoal in the night, seventeen leagues W. from Macasser, while returning from the Moluccas. On this occasion her goods were lost, which were not of much value, but they saved the money, being 2000 dollars, and all their provisions, remaining fourteen days on a desolate island, where they fitted up their boat, which brought themselves and their money to Bantam. All their goods and other things were left behind, and seized by the king of Macasser, who refused to make restitution. At Jacatra the Hector sunk in three fathoms water while careening, her keel being exceedingly worm-eaten. The Concord is there also laid up, so rotten and leaky that they had to take out her provisions, and let her sink close to the shore. The Hosiander, on the 15th October 1616, was appointed to sail for the Coromandel coast.
The factories which are at present established for our company in the East Indies, so far as I could hear, are these: Bantam, Jacatra, Ahmedabad, Agra, Agimere, Burhanpoor, Calicut, Masulipatam, Patepulli, Patane, Siam, Banjermassen, Succodania, Macasser, Acheen, Jambo, Tecoo, Banda, and Firando in Japan. At Bantam, Mr. George Barclay was chief, with John Jordan, George Ball, Ralph Copendale, and several other factors and assistants. The principal purpose of the factory at Acheen, is to solicit for our better proceedings at Priaman and Tecoo. The place is unwholesome, more especially for such as indulge in the use of hot fiery drinks, as arack and aracape, which bring many to untimely graves; and throw discredit on the voyage. It is not to be imagined at home, how unruly are the common men abroad, never being satisfied unless when their brains are reeling with liquor.
Even the king of Acheen is said to have a strange habit of getting drunk when the English resort to him, as if thereby to do them honour, and it seems dishonourable to them not to conform with him, in sitting in the water, drinking hard, and many other strange customs. He is very tyrannical and cruel to his subjects, daily cutting off the hands, arms, and legs of many, on very small and frivolous causes; or causing them to be thrown to the elephants, he himself commanding a sagacious elephant to toss the culprits so high and so often, as either to bruise or kill them, according to his caprice at the time. No one that arrives at his port may land without his chop or licence. On one occasion, a Dutch general came on shore without his licence, by desire of the principal factor, who presumed on his favour with the king. When the general came to the palace-gate, where another chop is necessary, the king found this irregularity to have proceeded from the presumption of the resident, whom he sent for and laid before the elephant, who tossed him three times, but so gently as not to bruise him much, giving him thus a warning how he should neglect the king's commands another time. The Dutch general stood by the while, fearing to come in for his share of this strange discipline; but the king forgave him, as ignorant of the law. The poor factor, being called into the king's presence, humbly acknowledged his punishment to have been merited, yet fled with the rest of the factory at the departure of the ships; on which the king placed us in their house.
We sailed from Bantam, homeward bound, on the 1st November 1616. The 5th January 1617, I was unable to weigh our anchor, owing to the violence of the wind, to follow the Dragon to Penguin island. Ships that go round the Cape of Good Hope from India, at this season of the year, ought not to anchor short of Saldanha road [Table Bay], but ought to bear to leeward for Penguin island, and anchor there with two anchors at once, till the wind serve. In December, January, and February, the S.S.E. wind blows there with great violence from new to full moon. Yet I hold it dangerous to neglect this place, trusting to refreshments at St. Helena, a certainty for an uncertainty; as the obscurity of the sun and moon, owing to thick mists at this season, may disappoint the most experienced navigators, and occasion the loss of ship, cargo, and men. While at the Cape, Corey came down with three sheep, and promised more, but went away in great haste to his wife and family, who dwelt now farther from the bay than formerly. It appears that the Hollanders had frightened the natives, by landing and going up the country with above an hundred men at once. Owing to this, our chief refreshment here was fresh fish.
The 9th April 1617, we passed through great quantities of sea-weeds, called seragasso, which float in long ridges or rows along with the wind, and at considerable distances from each other. This plant has a leaf like samphire, but not so thick, and carries a very small yellow berry. It reaches from 22° 20' to 32° both of N. latitude. We anchored in the Downs on the 29th of May 1617.
§3. Brief Notice of the Ports, Cities, and Towns, inhabited by, and traded with, by the Portuguese between the Cape of Good Hope and Japan, in 1616.
The river of Quame, or Cuamo, on the eastern coast of Africa, where they are said to trade yearly for gold, elephants' teeth, ambergris, and slaves. Mozambique, an island on the same coast, where they trade for gold, ambergris, and slaves, in barter for iron, lead, tin, and Cambay commodities. Magadoxo, which has abundance of elephants' teeth, some ambergris, and various kinds of drugs. From these ports they trade yearly to Cambay, the Red Sea, and other places, observing the monsoons, which blow W. in April, May, June, July, August, and part of September, and the E. monsoon prevails an the other months. A few days between the cessation of one monsoon and the commencement of the other, the winds are variable, attended by calms, but become regular in a few days. To the east of Sumatra, however, the two monsoons continue only five months each way, the two intermediate months having variable winds.
Ormus in the gulf of Persia, whence the Portuguese trade to Persia, Diul-sinde, Arabia, &c. They fetch much pearl from Bassora; and they load a ship or two with Persian commodities for Diul-sinde, where they arrive between the end of August and middle of September, taking likewise with them great store of dollars. Ormus is their best place in the Indies except Goa. At Muskat they have a fort and some small trade, keeping the natives in such awe by land and sea, that they dare not trade without their licence, and this practice they follow in all parts of India where they are strong. Diul-sinde on the Indus in the dominions of the Great Mogul. Diu, where they have a strong castle. Damaun, where they have a castle, and are said to have an hundred villages under their authority. Basseen, or Serra de Bazein, a little south from Damaun, and bordering on the Deccan; between which and Chaul they have three ports, Gazein, Banda, and Maia. Chaul is a great city with a castle. At Dabul they have a factory, but no fort.
Goa is their metropolitan city in India, which stands in a small island, being the seat of their viceroy, and the anchoring place of their caracks. Onore has a small fort. Barcellore, a town and castle, yields pepper, ginger, and many kinds of drugs. Mangalore, a town and castle. Cananore, a city and castle, yielding similar commodities with Barcellore. From Calicut they have been expelled by the Zamorin, who endeavours to do the same at Crangator [Cranganore], where they have a fort. Cochin is a strong city and castle, pleasantly situated on the sea in a wholesome air, with a fine river for the reception of ships. Coulan, a town with a small castle; near which is a village named St. Lawrence, chiefly inhabited by friars and jesuits. Quiloan, a small city with a castle. Tuckatra, a town and castle, the inhabitants being mostly Christians.
Manaar is on the island of Ceylon, between Cape Comorin and Point-de-Gale, where they have a town inhabited by Portuguese. In this island also they have Columbo, and many other small places, having conquered most of the island, which yields cinnamon and various drugs. Negopatnam is a city of great trade, on the coast of Coromandel, where they have only a factory. St. Thomas, or Meliapoor, is a walled town inhabited by the Portuguese. In Bengal, up the river Ganges, they have a town, besides some factories and many small habitations. They have a factory in Pegu, another in Aracan, and one in the river of Martaban. Also at Junkceylon they have a great factory, whence they fetch considerable quantities of tin to the Malabar coast.
Malacca is a strong city and castle belonging to the Portuguese, and the centre of a great trade in those parts of India. From this place the king of Acheen has long sought to root them out, and has burnt and plundered some of their ships this year, 1619. At Macao, an island on the coast of China, they have a city with a castle, where they are said to carry on much trade with the Chinese. They have a factory in Japan, but neither town nor fort; and trade thence with the coast of China. The Dutch are said to make much spoil of the vessels employed on this trade, Portuguese, Chinese, and others, accounting all fish that fall into their net.
[Footnote 161: Purch. Pilgr. I. 528.]
[Footnote 162: Corey, or Coree, was a savage, or Hottentot chief; who had been in England.--Purch.]
[Footnote 163: Ningin, or Ginseng, is mentioned afterwards. The quicksilver rock has not been found.--E.]
[Footnote 164: This height is probably an exaggeration, or was measured up its slope or talus, not ascertained perpendicularly.--E.]
[Footnote 165: A medicinal root, much prized at Japan, somewhat like a skerrit.--Purch. Probably that named Ginseng, in high repute in China and Japan for its fancied restorative and provocative powers, like the mandrake of holy writ, but deservedly despised in the Materia Medica of Europe. Its whole virtues lay in some supposed resemblance to the human figure, founded on the childish doctrine of signatures; whence, at one time, everything yellow was considered specific against jaundice, with many other and similar absurd notions.--E.]
[Footnote 166: These two numbers unquestionably relate to the longitude and latitude respectively, though strangely expressed. The true lat. is 13° 20'N. and long. 53° E. from Greenwich.--E.]
[Footnote 167: Sidy, or Seid, signifies a descendant or relative of Mahomet, and Hachem, a prophet.--E.]
[Footnote 168: In the Pilgrims this person is named Zuipher-Car-Chan, but we believe the orthography in the text is more correct.--E.]
[Footnote 169: From this explanation, the mahmoody and larine may be assumed as worth one shilling; the pice as equal to a farthing and a half, and the dram at about 1/10th of a farthing.--E.]
[Footnote 170: Named Underecon Cheete in a subsequent article.--E.]
[Footnote 171: These prizes were taken from the Portuguese in part satisfaction for their unjust vexations and hostilities at Surat and other places.--Purch.]
[Footnote 172: No notice is taken of the fourth ship, the Lion, probably left at Surat; indeed, the whole of this relation is exceedingly vague and unsatisfactory, the name even of the general never being once mentioned.--E.]
[Footnote 173: In 8° 22' N. at the distance indicated from cape Comorin, is a place called Billingham, which may possibly be the Brinion of the text.--E.]
[Footnote 174: Pulo Mintaon, off the S.W. coast of Sumatra, nearly under the line, is probably here meant.--E.]
[Footnote 175: We had formerly occasion to notice a ship sheathed with iron at Japan, and this is the first indication or proposal for using copper in that way. Iron sheathing has never been adopted into British practice, while copper sheathing is now universal. Captain Peyton does not appear to have been aware that copper sheathing is incompatible with iron fastenings, which indeed was only learnt long after, by woeful experience, and the loss of many ships and men. In consequence of a strong predisposing chemical afinity, exerted by the contiguity of the copper and iron in the sea water, the muriatic acid corrodes the iron bolts and other fastenings, all of which are now made of copper in ships that are to be copper sheathed.--E.]
[Footnote 176: It is so expressed in the Pilgrims; yet it would seem that such arbitrary proceeding in the sovereign, assuming the character of merchant, would be destructive of all trade.--E.]
[Footnote 177: The goitre was long ignorantly imputed in Europe to drinking snow water; but is now well known only to affect the inhabitants of peculiar districts, as Derbyshire in England, and the Valais in Switzerland, and this district in Sumatra, where certain mineral impregnations render the water unwholesome.--E.]
[Footnote 178: This is a mistake for the isle of Bahrein.--E.]
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