CHAPTER 9 -- The route from Surat to Golconda.

    [[115]] .... I have made several journeys to Golconda, and by different routes, sometimes by sea, from Hormuz to Masulipatam, sometimes from Agra, and most frequently from Surat, which is the great Threshold of Hindustan. I shall not speak in this chapter save of the ordinary route from Surat to Golconda, in which I include that from Agra, which leads to Daulatabad....

    [[116]] .... *Daulatabad* is one of the best forts in the empire of the *Great Mogul*; it is on a mountain which is scarped on all sides, the road to it being so narrow that only one horse or one camel can pass at a time. The town is at the foot of the mountain and has good walls, and this important place, which the Moguls lost when the Kings of *Bijapur* and *Golconda* revolted and threw off the yoke, was retaken under the reign of Jahangir by a subtle stratagem. Sultan Khurram, who was afterwards called Shah Jahan, commanded the army of the Emperor his father in the Deccan, and Asad Khan, father-in-law of Shaista Khan, who was one of the generals, said something to the Prince, who was so enraged that, sending [[117]] at once for one of his pa-poshes ["foot-garment"] or slippers, which are left at the door, he ordered him to receive five or six strokes with it on the head; this in India is the highest affront, after which it is impossible for a man to show himself. All this was done through an understanding between the Sultan and the general, in order better to deceive the world, and especially the spies which the King of Bijapur might have in the army of the Prince. The rumour of the disgrace of Asad Khan being quickly spread, and he himself having gone to seek refuge with the King of Bijapur, the latter, not having sharp enough eyes to perceive the ruse, gave him a good reception and promised him his protection. Asad Khan, finding himself so well received, asked the King to allow him for greater safety to take with him ten or twelve of his wives, and about as many servants, into the fortress of Daulatabad; this was granted to him.

    He entered with eight or ten camels, the two kajawas [=panniers] which are carried on either side of the camels being well closed, according to custom, so that one cannot see the women who are inside. But instead of women, they had put in them good soldiers, two in each kajawa, all men of action; of the same sort was each Shutari [=camel-driver] who led his camel, so that it was easy for them to slaughter the garrison, who were not on their guard, and to make themselves masters of the place, which has ever since remained under the authority of the Great Mogul. There are, moreover, in this place numerous fine cannons, and the gunners are generally English or Dutch. It is true that there is a small mountain, higher than the fortress, but it is difficult of approach except by passing the [[118]] fortress.

There was a Dutch gunner there who, after serving the Emperor for fifteen or sixteen years, asked for his dismissal from him; and even the Dutch Company, which had placed him at the service of the Great Mogul, did all that it could to help him to obtain it; but it was never able to achieve this desire, because he was a very good gunner, and succeeded admirably with fireworks. The Raja *Jai Singh* [of *Jaipur*], who is the most powerful of all the idolatrous princes of India, and who had most effectively aided Aurangzeb to ascend the throne, was sent as Commander-in-Chief of the armies of that Emperor against the Raja Shivaji, and when passing near the fortress of Daulatabad this gunner went to salute him, and all the gunners of the army were *Franks* like himself. The Dutchman, taking advantage of the opportunity, told the Raja that if he agreed to give him his dismissal he would promise to find him a means for mounting cannon on the mountain which commanded the fortress, and they had already surrounded the mountain with a wall, some soldiers having been placed within the enclosure to prevent any one taking possession of it. The Raja, approving of the scheme, promised him that if he should be able to accomplish it he would obtain for him his dismissal from the Emperor with a liberal present. The matter having turned out successfully, to the Prince's content, he hept his promise to the Dutch gunner, and I saw the latter arrive at Surat at the beginning of the year 1667, whence he embarked for *Batavia*.

    From Daulatabad to Aurangabad, 4 *coss*.

    *Aurangabad* was formerly only a village, of which Aurangzeb [[119]] has made a town which is not enclosed. He made this notable increase, both on account of a lake of about 2 coss in circuit, upon which the village was built, and in memory of his first wife, who died there, and who was the mother of his children. She is buried at the end of the lake on the western side, where the King has built a mosque with a splendid tomb and a fine caravansarai. The mosque and the tomb cost a large sum, because they are covered with white marble, which was brought by wagon from the neighbourhood of Lahore [or more probably Rajasthan], and was on the road nearly four months. One day, when going from Surat to Golconda, I met, at five marches from Aurangabad, more than 300 wagons laden with this marble, the smallest of which was drawn by 12 oxen....

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